Ch. 2 - The Cytoplasm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2 - The Cytoplasm Deck (35):
1

What is the functional and structural unit of a tissue?

The cell

2

Eukaryotic cell

Cells with distinct membranous nuclei surrounded by cytoplasm containing membrane-bound organelles

Larger than prokaryotic cells

I.e. animals

3

Prokaryotic cell

Cells with a cell wall around the plasmalemma and lack membranous structures

Smaller than eukaryotic cells

I.e. bacteria

4

Zygote

The single cell formed by the merger of a spermatozoon with an oocyte at fertilization

5

Blastomeres

Cells produced by the first zygotic cellular divisions

Give rise to all tissue types of the fetus

6

Embryonic stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner mass of the embryo

7

Cell differentiation

Specialization of embryonic stem cells

Cells synthesize increased quantities of specific proteins and become very efficient in specialized functions

Often change shape to match function

8

What is an example of cell differentiation?

Muscle cell precursors elongate into fiber-like cells containing large arrays of actin and myosin

9

Name the specialized activity of muscle and contractile cells.

Movement

10

Name the specialized activity of epithelial cells.

Form adhesive and tight junctions between cells

11

Name the specialized activity of fibroblasts and the cells of bone and cartilage.

Synthesize and secrete components of the ECM

12

Name the specialized activity of neurons and sensory cells.

Convert physical and chemical stimuli into action potentials

13

Name the specialized activity of cells of the digestive glands.

Synthesis and secretion of degradative enzymes

14

Name the specialized activity of cells of mucous glands.

Synthesis and secretion of glycoproteins

15

Name the specialized activity of certain cells of the adrenal gland, testes and ovaries.

Synthesis and secretion of steroids

16

Name the specialized activity of cells of the kidney and salivary gland ducts.

Ion transport

17

Name the specialized activity of macrophages and neutrophils.

Intracellular digestion

18

Name the specialized activity of fat cells.

Lipid storage

19

Name the specialized activity of cells lining the intestine.

Metabolite absorption

20

Specialized functions _______ be performed by most cells of the body.

can

Specialized cells just have an expanded capacity for these functions

21

Cytoplasm

Surrounds the nucleus

22

Nucleus

Membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that holds the genetic material

23

Plasma membrane or Plasmalemma

Outermost component of the cell
Separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment

Selective barrier, regulating that passage of materials in and our of the cell and facilitating transport of specific molecules
Maintains the ion content of cytoplasm

24

Integrins

Proteins of the plasma membrane that link the cytoplasm and the ECM

25

Cytosol

Fluid inside the cytoplasm that bathes the organelles

26

Organelle

Metabolically active structures within the cell cytoplasm
May be membranous or nonmembranous

27

Cytoskeleton

Determines the shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

28

Inclusions

Deposits of carbohydrates, lipids, and pigments

29

What is the plasma membrane made up of?

Amphipathic phospholipids consisting of long-chain fatty acids linked to a hydrophilic head that bears a phosphate group

Form a phospholipid bilayer

Cholesterol molecules insert at varying densities among the bilayer to provide rigidity to restrict movement

The outer layer contains glycolipids which contribute to the glycocalyx

30

Glycolipids

Outer lipids of the plasma membrane

Include oligosaccharide (sugar) chains that extend outward from the cell surface and contribute to the glycocalyx

31

Integral proteins

Proteins that are directly incorporated within the lipid bilayer and permanently attached to it

Can only be extracted from cells via detergents that disrupt lipids

All transmembrane proteins are integral proteins, but not all integral proteins are transmembrane proteins

32

Peripheral proteins

Proteins that are temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer
Can ge easily extracted from cells via salt solutions

33

Transmembrane proteins

Proteins that span the bilayer (from one side to the other)

All transmembrane proteins are integral proteins, but not all integral proteins are transmembrane proteins

34

Carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins project from the _______ surface of the plasma membrane and are important components of proteins acting as _______.

receptors

35

The distribution of membrane polypeptides is _______ in the two surfaces of the cell membranes. Therefore, all membranes in the cell are _______.

different; asymmetric