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Flashcards in Ch 23 Deck (23):

Ulysses S. Grant (Illinois)

- former civil war general
- nominated for president in 1868 and 1872
- 1868 election
-“vote as you shot”
- Grant (Republican) 214
- Seymour (Democrat) 80


Fisk and Gould

- millionaire partners
- 1869- planned to conner the gold market
- would only work if treasury would refrain from selling gold
- coerced Grant and his brother-in-law
- bided the price of gold way up
- bubble broke when treasury released gold


Tweed Ring (NYC)

- “Boss” tweed employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections
- amassed $200 mil from the city
- word of his scams came out and he was prosecuted by Tilden (future presidential candidate)


Credit Mobilier Scandal 1872

- Union pacific insiders founded the Credit Mobilier construction company and hired themselves to build a RR
- earned dividends of 348%
- to avoid being busted they handed out stock to key congressmen
- exposed by a newspaper (2 congressmen fired)


Whiskey Ring (1874- 1875)

- robbed the treasury of millions in excise tax revenues
- “let no guilty man escape” - Grant
- when culprits are captured he volunteers a written statement for the jury that exonerates the thieves



- reform minded citizens formed the liberal republican party
- they nominated Greeley for president in 1872
- backed up the democrats
- heated election, lots of mudslinging
- Grant (Repub)
- Greeley (Lib Repub)



- US’s paper money ($450 mil)
- depreciated
- 1868- had already removed 100mil from circulation
- Debtors- wanted money re-issued so there would be “more”
- Creditors- wanted deflation not inflation
- resumption act of 1875- further remove more greenbacks
- Contraction- treasury collects precious metals and reassumes greenbacks
- brought greenback up to full value and restored gov’t credit rating



- Grand Army of the Republic
- fraternal organization of union war vets.
- supported the republicans



- led by Roscoe Conkling (NY)
- embraced spoils system



- opposed to Stalwarts
- flirted coyly w/ civil service reform
- really wanted pwr
- James G Blaine (Maine)= leader


Compromise of 1877

- results were very close and votes from several states were disputed
- democrats agreed to allow Hayes to take office if troops are immediately drawn out of Louisiana and South Carolina
- ended reconstruction
- republicans assured that they would support a bill subsidizing a southern transcontinental RR


Jim Crow Laws and Black Suppression

- state level legal codes of segregation
- south also enacted poll taxes, literacy requirements, and voter registration to disenfranchise backs
- Plessy v Ferguson 1896
- separate but = is okay
- #of lynchings in creased in the 1890s


Chinese Immigrants

- many came to CA from K’uangt’ung province in China
- got jobs mining gold and laying railroads
- violently abuse by the irish
- Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ended Chinese immigration



- 1880 Repub. Presidential candiate
- Garfield (R) 214
- Winfield Scott (D) 155
- SoS= Blaine (half-breed)
- Garfield is killed by Charles J. Guiteau (hanged)
- says “I am a Stalwart, Arthur is now president”



- 1880 Repub. VP candiate (stalwart)
- from Ohio
- becomes president after Garfield’s death
- urges a reform of the spoils system
- Pendelton Civil Service Act


James G Blaine

- former SOS wants Repub. Presidential nomination (1884)
- from Maine
- some repubs. challenged his candidacy due to scandal
- Mulligan Letters
- written by Blaine to a Boston business man
- linked him to a corrupt deal
- caused some ppl to defect to democrats (Mugwamps)
- looses w/ 182 votes


Grover Cleveland

- Democratic nomination for 1884
- Repub. mudslingers found out that he had an 8yr old illegitimate son
- Cleveland admits it
- election is very mudsling-y
- Wins w/ 219 votes
- during his term he fought for a lower tariff


Benjamin Harrison (Repub.)

- son of WHH
- Election of 1888
- tariff= prime issue of 1888
- some votes were bought
- BH 233
- GC 168


Thomas B. Reed

- new republican speaker of the house
- from Maine
- bent the house to his will
- dominated the “billion dollar congress”
- spent lots of money on pensions etc.


McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

- raised tariff to 48.4%
- sponsored by W. McKinley of Ohio in the House
- angered rural voters
- in 1890 repubs. lost majority



- mainly formers in the west and the south
- platform denounced the “prolific womb of governmental injustice”
- Called for
- graduated income tax
- govt. ownership of
- RR, telegraphs, and telephone
- direct election of US senators
- shorter workday
- immigration restriction
- African American Populists
- south increased it’s use of literary tests etc.
- Grandfather clause exempted these requirements from anyone whose ancestors had voted in 1860 (when black couldn't vote)
- more sever jim crow laws as well



- Economic downturn @ start of Cleveland’s (2nd) presidency
- most devastating one of century
- Sparked by:
- Overbuilding
- over speculation
- labor disorders
- agricultural depression
-"endless cycle" of gold draining from the Treasury
- made it necessary to repeal Sherman Silver Purchase Act


Sherman Silver Purchase Act

1890- compromise between the western silver agitators and the eastern protectionist
- Westerners agreed to support a higher tariff and the protectionists, this bill.
- ordered the Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly.
- re-elected Cleveland wanted a repeal
- only partially stopped the hemorrhaging of gold from the treasury
- Cleveland makes deal w/ JP Morgan to get $65 mil in gold for a loan