Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (59):
Center of Pop. (1840)?
Passed the appalachian mtns
Center of Pop. (1860)?
Passed the Ohio River
Pop. of US 1790?
Pop. of US 1860?
number of cities w/ more than 20,000 people (1860)`?
1. Bad sanitation 2. Bad street lighting 3. No policing 4. Impure water 5. sewage and rats 6. bad garbage disposal
decade of first water and sewage systems?
Event leading to irish immigration?d
main US cities of irish immigration?
NYC and Philly
1. from name Bridget 2. female irish immigrants 3. mainly domestic servants
1. from name Patrick 2. Male irish immigrants 3. mainly canal diggers and RR/road builders
No irish need apply
center and extent of Irish political power (NYC)?
Tammany Hall, 'paddy wagons' were police carts - irish controlled police force
main religion of irish?
number of irish (1830-1860)?
why immigration from Germany?
A failed democratic revolution --> wanted democracy
how many germans (1830-1860)?
5 million; generally more affluent than irish
germans settled where?
Mainly the west
major religion of Germans?
Christianity: Catholic and Lutheran
Anti-foreigners; mainly towards Irish
Catholic schools formed because of the conflict between Catholic and other religions
order of the star spangled banner?
1849, AKA the know-nothing party or the American Party, where nativists
largest religious denom (1850)?
Beginnings of the Industrial Rev. (US and UK)?
US = 1840s UK = 1750s; started with the steam engine
Why US was slow to mechanize?
1. Jefferson's resistance 2. cheap land -> nobody poor enough to be forced to labor 3. UK imports
What spurred the US mechanization?
1. many inventions (e.g. cotton gin, textile mill, sewing machine, interchangeable parts) 2. Embargo/ Non-intercourse/1812 3. influx of immigrants
Brought textile mills to US (1790s)
Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts (1790s)
Effects of Cotton Gin
slavery = increased (made profitable); immigration = more in north; factories = more, to process overflow of cotton
Importance of interchangeable parts?
easier repair, less expensive
Inventors of sewing machines?
Howe and Singer
1840s; Samuel Morse
number patents in 1850s?
First investment capital company (US)?`
Boston Associates: dominated textile, RR, insurance, and banking in MA. Mill town in Lowell, MA.
individuals cannot be sued, started in 1850s in NY, allowed for easier business starling -> more business.
Factories in 1800s conditions?
long hours, dangerous, unhealthy, small wages.
labor unions + strikes?
initially, workers were just fired; 1842 MA supreme court said: labor unions = legal if nonviolent
Lowell Factory Girls?"
girls worked at Boston Associates' Lowell textile mills, shown off as model factory workers, semi decent conditions.
main occupations of working women?
nurses, teachers, factories
cult of domesticity?
belief that women should stay at home, take care of children, etc.
Focus more on the arts
fertility rate in 1850s etc?
decreased, women were spending more time out of the house; families became more child-centered, with fewer children.
international communication 1858?
Cyrus Field's wires from Newfoundland to ireland.
Main grain producers?
Ohio River Valley
John Deere, 1837: now all kinds of soil could be tilled, opened up NW.
first major road?
Lancaster Turnpike; 1790s from Philly to Lancaster
second major road?
nat'l road/cumberland road: finished in 1852
frist by Robert Fulton ("Fulton's Folly") in 1807; now it was possible to go upriver; more than 1000 by 1860 on Mississippi R.
From Buffalo NY to the Hudson River and NYC. nicknamed Clinton's Big Ditch, 1852
effects of canals and Steamboats?
increased farming in Old NW; lowered price of goods;
first RR completed?
miles of track 1860?
region with most RR?
what became standardized in RR?
the gauges - distance between RR ties
lasted on 15 years, started in 1860; died out because of the telegraph
Southern Trade 1860?
cotton and wheat to NORTH and UK
Western Trade 1860?
Wheat and Corn to EAST and EUROPE