Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (59):
1

Center of Pop. (1840)?

Passed the appalachian mtns

2

Center of Pop. (1860)?

Passed the Ohio River

3

Pop. of US 1790?

3.9 million

4

Pop. of US 1860?

31.4 Million

5

number of cities w/ more than 20,000 people (1860)`?

43

6

Urban Probs

1. Bad sanitation 2. Bad street lighting 3. No policing 4. Impure water 5. sewage and rats 6. bad garbage disposal

7

decade of first water and sewage systems?

1820s

8

Event leading to irish immigration?d

potato famine

9

main US cities of irish immigration?

NYC and Philly

10

"biddies"?

1. from name Bridget 2. female irish immigrants 3. mainly domestic servants

11

"paddies"?

1. from name Patrick 2. Male irish immigrants 3. mainly canal diggers and RR/road builders

12

NINA

No irish need apply

13

center and extent of Irish political power (NYC)?

Tammany Hall, 'paddy wagons' were police carts - irish controlled police force

14

main religion of irish?

catholicism

15

number of irish (1830-1860)?

4 million

16

why immigration from Germany?

A failed democratic revolution --> wanted democracy

17

how many germans (1830-1860)?

5 million; generally more affluent than irish

18

germans settled where?

Mainly the west

19

german innovations?

Kindergarten

20

major religion of Germans?

Christianity: Catholic and Lutheran

21

"nativism"?

Anti-foreigners; mainly towards Irish

22

"parochial schools"?

Catholic schools formed because of the conflict between Catholic and other religions

23

order of the star spangled banner?

1849, AKA the know-nothing party or the American Party, where nativists

24

largest religious denom (1850)?

Catholic

25

Beginnings of the Industrial Rev. (US and UK)?

US = 1840s UK = 1750s; started with the steam engine

26

Why US was slow to mechanize?

1. Jefferson's resistance 2. cheap land -> nobody poor enough to be forced to labor 3. UK imports

27

What spurred the US mechanization?

1. many inventions (e.g. cotton gin, textile mill, sewing machine, interchangeable parts) 2. Embargo/ Non-intercourse/1812 3. influx of immigrants

28

Samuel Slater

Brought textile mills to US (1790s)

29

Eli Whitney

Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts (1790s)

30

Effects of Cotton Gin

slavery = increased (made profitable); immigration = more in north; factories = more, to process overflow of cotton

31

Importance of interchangeable parts?

easier repair, less expensive

32

Inventors of sewing machines?

Howe and Singer

33

Telegraph

1840s; Samuel Morse

34

number patents in 1850s?

28000

35

First investment capital company (US)?`

Boston Associates: dominated textile, RR, insurance, and banking in MA. Mill town in Lowell, MA.

36

Incorporation?

individuals cannot be sued, started in 1850s in NY, allowed for easier business starling -> more business.

37

Factories in 1800s conditions?

long hours, dangerous, unhealthy, small wages.

38

labor unions + strikes?

initially, workers were just fired; 1842 MA supreme court said: labor unions = legal if nonviolent

39

Lowell Factory Girls?"

girls worked at Boston Associates' Lowell textile mills, shown off as model factory workers, semi decent conditions.

40

main occupations of working women?

nurses, teachers, factories

41

cult of domesticity?

belief that women should stay at home, take care of children, etc.
Focus more on the arts

42

fertility rate in 1850s etc?

decreased, women were spending more time out of the house; families became more child-centered, with fewer children.

43

international communication 1858?

Cyrus Field's wires from Newfoundland to ireland.

44

Main grain producers?

Ohio River Valley

45

Porkopolis?

Cincinnati

46

steel plow?

John Deere, 1837: now all kinds of soil could be tilled, opened up NW.

47

first major road?

Lancaster Turnpike; 1790s from Philly to Lancaster

48

second major road?

nat'l road/cumberland road: finished in 1852

49

steamboats?

frist by Robert Fulton ("Fulton's Folly") in 1807; now it was possible to go upriver; more than 1000 by 1860 on Mississippi R.

50

Erie Canal?

From Buffalo NY to the Hudson River and NYC. nicknamed Clinton's Big Ditch, 1852

51

effects of canals and Steamboats?

increased farming in Old NW; lowered price of goods;

52

first RR completed?

1828

53

miles of track 1860?

32000

54

region with most RR?

New England

55

what became standardized in RR?

the gauges - distance between RR ties

56

Pony Express

lasted on 15 years, started in 1860; died out because of the telegraph

57

Southern Trade 1860?

cotton and wheat to NORTH and UK

58

Western Trade 1860?

Wheat and Corn to EAST and EUROPE

59

Eastern Trade 1860

textiles to SOUTH and WEST