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Years of the gilded age

1865 - 1900

1

Who named the era?

Mark twain

2

What does it imply?

That the us looked shiny but there was something less attractive underneath.

3

Party in power during the majority of the gilded age

Repub

4

Two wings of repubs / leaders

Half breeds (Blaine, Maine) & Stalwarts (Conkling, NY)

5

Election 1860

Winner: Lincoln , repubs
Opponent: Douglas, demos

6

Election 1864

Winner: Lincoln repub (replaced by Johnson, demo 1865)
Opponent: McClellan demo

7

Election 1868

Winner: Grant repub
Opponent: Seymour demo

8

Election 1872

Winner: Grant repub
Opponent: Greeley demo

9

Election 1876

Winner: Hayes (bc of the compromise) repub
Opponent: Tilden demo (initially had more popular votes

10

Election 1880

Winner: Garfield repub, replaced by Arthur. Repub, 1881

11

Election 1884

Winner: Cleveland demo
Opponent: Blaine repub half breed

12

Election 1888

Winner: Harrison repub
Opponent: Cleveland demo

13

Election 1892

Winner: Cleveland demo
Opponent: Harrison repub

14

Election 1896

Winner: McKinley repub
Opponent: Bryan demo

15

Election 1900

Winner: McKinley repub (VP Roosevelt)
Opponent: Bryan demo

16

1868 sources of support: GAR who?

Grand Army of the republic - a fraternal organization of Union veterans formed in 1866

17

What does "waving the bloody shirt" mean?

Blaming the south

18

New group that made a difference in several states (election 1868)?

Freedmen

19

3 major scandals (I'll just put what I have in the packet, there are many answers)

Credit mobilier, whiskey ring, Fisk and Gould

20

City gov'ts run by what?

Political machines

21

NYC Boss ______ of __________ Hall, and his political party

Tweed, Tammany (spell it right Sar), Democrat

22

Person who convicted boss tweed?

Tilden

23

What region of the us was most likely to give women early suffrage?

West

24

What us territory gave women the right to vote in 1869?

Wyoming

25

When did the constitution give women the right to vote?

1920

26

1872 - why did grant win again?

The GAR gave support and waved the bloody shirt

27

1876 - who got more pop votes?

Tilden

28

What was the compromise of 1877

Tilden gave the election to Hayes, in exchange for a promise to remove federal troops from the south.

29

What is a dark horse candidate?

An unexpected candidate

30

1880 - the VP of the winning candidate was a ____________

Stalwart

31

1880 - why did Guiteau think he was a hero for assassinating Garfield?

Because he was a stalwart, and now there is a stalwart in office - it was the will of God to have a stalwart in office

32

1881 - to whom was the new president indebted to (as he said)

The almighty

33

1881 - what law did the pres sign?

Pendleton Civil Service Act - classified 10% of jobs as Civil service

34

1884 - eventual winner was hounded by people shouting:

"Ma ma where's my pa?"

35

1884 - the eventual loser was implicated in what?

The Mulligan Letters

36

1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "rum" mean?

Repubs tended to support the temperance movement, demos did not

37

1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "Romanism" mean?

The Catholic Church - there were ideas that the pope was going to usurp civil liberties

38

1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "rebellion" mean?

Looking back at the civil war / bloodshed from the democratic south.

39

What was the group called who defected from the repubs and voted for the demos?

Mugwumps

40

1888 - winner's nickname

Young tippecanoe

41

1892 - problems during the presidency

The panic of 1893 (worst ever), and Coxey's army marches from Ohio to DC to protest farm conditions, the 1894 Pullman strike

42

Who headed the 1894 Pullman strike, where the American Railway Union sympathy shut down most of the Railroads, and what was he convicted of?

Debs, prevention of the delivery of US mail

43

1892 - which third party emerged, and from where did their support originate?

The populists ( the people's party ), from the northern and southern farmers' alliance

44

What were three planks of the people's party platform?

Wanted to nationalize the RRs / communication, wanted a new fed subtreasury to give loans to farmers, wanted unlimited coinage of silver

45

1896 - the demos were split, who was their final nominee and what was his famous speech?

Bryan, Cross of Gold

46

1896 - the winner was known as what? And was funded by whom?

The high priest of tariffs, 'Dollar' Mark Hanna

47

Who wanted inflation?

Farmers/people with debt

48

Who wanted deflation?

People who make loans

49

What does the gov't do with money to cause inflation?

Inject more money - if people have more money then they will lay more for goods

50

What are two ways the gov't could increase the money supply?

Spending, lending

51

What were greenbacks?

Paper money issued by the confed.

52

What was the crime of 73, and who named it?

The gov't's decision to not mint anymore silver dollars, and opponents of hard money

53

What was the Bland - Allison act, 1878

The US gov't would buy $2-4 million in silver every month and mint coins with it.

54

What was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890?

Govt would buy $4.5 million of silver per month (changed in 1900 with the Gold Standard Act)

55

6 key industries and a major person

1) transportation, Stanford 2) steel, Carnegie 3) oil, Rockefeller 4) banking, Morgan 5) coal 6) agricultural equipment

56

Define vertical integration, who founded it?

Combining / Owning all the steps of the manufacturing / distribution process into one company, Carnegie

57

Define horizontal integration

Allying and buying out competitors ( eventually --> monopolies)

58

Define trust and name two major trusts

Combining all the competitors onto a board of directors, standard oil abs US steel

59

What key question does political economics answer?

"What should the role of the gov't be in economics"

60

Farmers were faced with which two monopolies?

RR freight rates, Storage rates

61

Munn vs. Illinois 1877

The court ruled that states may regulate the RR industry since the industry is "affected with a local interest" -- a victory for farmers

62

Wabash v. Illinois 1886

The court ruled that states may not regulate the RR industry because the industry engages in interstate commerce

63

What is the 1887 Interstate commerce act?

Outlawed pools and rebates, created the ICC

64

What is a pool?

An agreement to share RRs to share area and profit

65

Does the ICC exist today?

No

66

What act was passed in 1890, and what did it say?

Sherman Anti-Trust Act, it made any trust in restraint of trade illegal

67

What was the first trust broken up?

Standard Oil, by Rockefeller

68

What was Darwin's basic finding?

Natural selection / evolution

69

How did Darwin's findings explain the wealthy v. the poor?

Natural selections weeds out people without potential, and 'the chosen' become rich.

70

Name one famous social Darwinist of the gilded age?

Herbert Spencer

71

The gospel of wealth was associated with what industrialist, and what was the idea?

Carnegie, the wealthy had to prove morally responsible

72

Define philanthropy

The donation of money to support groups/charities

73

What did Josephson mean calling the industrialists 'barons'

He meant that the major industrialists were extremely politically and economically potent so they were almost of 'noble' status

74

Which two labor unions formed after the civil war but died out in the Panic of 1873?

National Labor Union and Black National Labor Union

75

Another major labor organization formed by Powderly, and why did it fail?

Knights of Labor, Pullman strike in Haymarket Square, Chicago

76

Gompers formed what, and does it still exist today?

The AFL, and no

77

What did labor unions want?

Higher wages, and better conditions

78

Between 1870 and 1900, the US population increased by what factor?

2

79

From 1870 to 1900, the urban population increased by a factor of what?

3

80

In what census was the population 50/50?

1920

81

Immigration first wave was when, and from where?

1830s - 1840s from the north and west (Britain, Germany)

82

When and from where was the second wave of immigration?

1900s - 1920ish, south and east (Italy, Spain, Hungary, Poland)

83

Who created the first hull house and where?

Jane Addams and Chicago

84

The hull house was the first what?

Settlement house

85

What was the social gospel movement?

Religious leaders helping with social issues

86

What is a political machine?

A group of fixers who will help you in exchange for a vote

87

Define nativism

Fear of foreigners

88

The APA is an acronym for what, and who were they most prejudiced against?

American Protective Association, Catholics

89

The Chinese exclusion act of 1882 said what?

Prevented the Chinese laborers from immigrating

90

List for city problems

Sanitation/rats, violence/tension, plumbing, slums

91

3 types of transportation

Trolleys, horse and buggy, railroad

92

Define suburb

Outer area of the city

93

Define tenement

Cheap apartment housing

94

Who wrote progress and poverty?

Henry George

95

Who wrote looking backwards?

Edward Bellamy

96

Who wrote call of the wild?

Jack London

97

Name two western tribes who the US fought

Cheyenne, Sioux

98

What did the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 say?

Dissolve the tribes as legal entities and give 160 acres to individual families.

99

What intended effect did the Dawes Act have on Indians?

Give them individual and mostly permanent land, Americanize them

100

What actual effect did the Dawes act have on Indians?

Ruined their tribal culture

101

What were segregation laws passed by the southern states called?

Jim Crow laws

102

What specific language said that separation was not racist?

Separate but equal

103

What was the decision of please v. Ferguson, and what decade did it happen?

1890s, the laws were constitutional on the grounds that they did not imply and racism towards blacks, and were merely going with state policy.

104

Justice Harlan made an argument that was adopted by the Supreme Court in what case in 1954?

Brown v. board of education

105

How did states bypass the 15th amendment (voting) for blacks?

Literacy test, poll tax, grandfather clauses

106

When, where did the women's suffrage movement begin?

Seneca Falls NY, 1848

107

What were two other issues that concerned women?

Job ops, household status

108

Name two women's rights leaders during the gilded age.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Carriem Chapman

109

Francis Willard founded what Union?

Women's Christian Temperance Union

110

Why was drinking seem as a women's issue?

Because they have persuasive powers over their husbands

111

Who was famous for writing rags to riches novels?

Horatio Alger

112

Who was known for his thesis about the importance of frontier in US history, and what was the importance?

Frederick Jackson Turner, the existence of land led to innovation and opportunity --> the American dream