Flashcards in Unit 5 Deck (113):
Years of the gilded age
1865 - 1900
Who named the era?
What does it imply?
That the us looked shiny but there was something less attractive underneath.
Party in power during the majority of the gilded age
Two wings of repubs / leaders
Half breeds (Blaine, Maine) & Stalwarts (Conkling, NY)
Winner: Lincoln , repubs
Opponent: Douglas, demos
Winner: Lincoln repub (replaced by Johnson, demo 1865)
Opponent: McClellan demo
Winner: Grant repub
Opponent: Seymour demo
Winner: Grant repub
Opponent: Greeley demo
Winner: Hayes (bc of the compromise) repub
Opponent: Tilden demo (initially had more popular votes
Winner: Garfield repub, replaced by Arthur. Repub, 1881
Winner: Cleveland demo
Opponent: Blaine repub half breed
Winner: Harrison repub
Opponent: Cleveland demo
Winner: Cleveland demo
Opponent: Harrison repub
Winner: McKinley repub
Opponent: Bryan demo
Winner: McKinley repub (VP Roosevelt)
Opponent: Bryan demo
1868 sources of support: GAR who?
Grand Army of the republic - a fraternal organization of Union veterans formed in 1866
What does "waving the bloody shirt" mean?
Blaming the south
New group that made a difference in several states (election 1868)?
3 major scandals (I'll just put what I have in the packet, there are many answers)
Credit mobilier, whiskey ring, Fisk and Gould
City gov'ts run by what?
NYC Boss ______ of __________ Hall, and his political party
Tweed, Tammany (spell it right Sar), Democrat
Person who convicted boss tweed?
What region of the us was most likely to give women early suffrage?
What us territory gave women the right to vote in 1869?
When did the constitution give women the right to vote?
1872 - why did grant win again?
The GAR gave support and waved the bloody shirt
1876 - who got more pop votes?
What was the compromise of 1877
Tilden gave the election to Hayes, in exchange for a promise to remove federal troops from the south.
What is a dark horse candidate?
An unexpected candidate
1880 - the VP of the winning candidate was a ____________
1880 - why did Guiteau think he was a hero for assassinating Garfield?
Because he was a stalwart, and now there is a stalwart in office - it was the will of God to have a stalwart in office
1881 - to whom was the new president indebted to (as he said)
1881 - what law did the pres sign?
Pendleton Civil Service Act - classified 10% of jobs as Civil service
1884 - eventual winner was hounded by people shouting:
"Ma ma where's my pa?"
1884 - the eventual loser was implicated in what?
The Mulligan Letters
1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "rum" mean?
Repubs tended to support the temperance movement, demos did not
1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "Romanism" mean?
The Catholic Church - there were ideas that the pope was going to usurp civil liberties
1884 - a minister claimed "rum, Romanism, rebellion" what did "rebellion" mean?
Looking back at the civil war / bloodshed from the democratic south.
What was the group called who defected from the repubs and voted for the demos?
1888 - winner's nickname
1892 - problems during the presidency
The panic of 1893 (worst ever), and Coxey's army marches from Ohio to DC to protest farm conditions, the 1894 Pullman strike
Who headed the 1894 Pullman strike, where the American Railway Union sympathy shut down most of the Railroads, and what was he convicted of?
Debs, prevention of the delivery of US mail
1892 - which third party emerged, and from where did their support originate?
The populists ( the people's party ), from the northern and southern farmers' alliance
What were three planks of the people's party platform?
Wanted to nationalize the RRs / communication, wanted a new fed subtreasury to give loans to farmers, wanted unlimited coinage of silver
1896 - the demos were split, who was their final nominee and what was his famous speech?
Bryan, Cross of Gold
1896 - the winner was known as what? And was funded by whom?
The high priest of tariffs, 'Dollar' Mark Hanna
Who wanted inflation?
Farmers/people with debt
Who wanted deflation?
People who make loans
What does the gov't do with money to cause inflation?
Inject more money - if people have more money then they will lay more for goods
What are two ways the gov't could increase the money supply?
What were greenbacks?
Paper money issued by the confed.
What was the crime of 73, and who named it?
The gov't's decision to not mint anymore silver dollars, and opponents of hard money
What was the Bland - Allison act, 1878
The US gov't would buy $2-4 million in silver every month and mint coins with it.
What was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890?
Govt would buy $4.5 million of silver per month (changed in 1900 with the Gold Standard Act)
6 key industries and a major person
1) transportation, Stanford 2) steel, Carnegie 3) oil, Rockefeller 4) banking, Morgan 5) coal 6) agricultural equipment
Define vertical integration, who founded it?
Combining / Owning all the steps of the manufacturing / distribution process into one company, Carnegie
Define horizontal integration
Allying and buying out competitors ( eventually --> monopolies)
Define trust and name two major trusts
Combining all the competitors onto a board of directors, standard oil abs US steel
What key question does political economics answer?
"What should the role of the gov't be in economics"
Farmers were faced with which two monopolies?
RR freight rates, Storage rates
Munn vs. Illinois 1877
The court ruled that states may regulate the RR industry since the industry is "affected with a local interest" -- a victory for farmers
Wabash v. Illinois 1886
The court ruled that states may not regulate the RR industry because the industry engages in interstate commerce
What is the 1887 Interstate commerce act?
Outlawed pools and rebates, created the ICC
What is a pool?
An agreement to share RRs to share area and profit
Does the ICC exist today?
What act was passed in 1890, and what did it say?
Sherman Anti-Trust Act, it made any trust in restraint of trade illegal
What was the first trust broken up?
Standard Oil, by Rockefeller
What was Darwin's basic finding?
Natural selection / evolution
How did Darwin's findings explain the wealthy v. the poor?
Natural selections weeds out people without potential, and 'the chosen' become rich.
Name one famous social Darwinist of the gilded age?
The gospel of wealth was associated with what industrialist, and what was the idea?
Carnegie, the wealthy had to prove morally responsible
The donation of money to support groups/charities
What did Josephson mean calling the industrialists 'barons'
He meant that the major industrialists were extremely politically and economically potent so they were almost of 'noble' status
Which two labor unions formed after the civil war but died out in the Panic of 1873?
National Labor Union and Black National Labor Union
Another major labor organization formed by Powderly, and why did it fail?
Knights of Labor, Pullman strike in Haymarket Square, Chicago
Gompers formed what, and does it still exist today?
The AFL, and no
What did labor unions want?
Higher wages, and better conditions
Between 1870 and 1900, the US population increased by what factor?
From 1870 to 1900, the urban population increased by a factor of what?
In what census was the population 50/50?
Immigration first wave was when, and from where?
1830s - 1840s from the north and west (Britain, Germany)
When and from where was the second wave of immigration?
1900s - 1920ish, south and east (Italy, Spain, Hungary, Poland)
Who created the first hull house and where?
Jane Addams and Chicago
The hull house was the first what?
What was the social gospel movement?
Religious leaders helping with social issues
What is a political machine?
A group of fixers who will help you in exchange for a vote
Fear of foreigners
The APA is an acronym for what, and who were they most prejudiced against?
American Protective Association, Catholics
The Chinese exclusion act of 1882 said what?
Prevented the Chinese laborers from immigrating
List for city problems
Sanitation/rats, violence/tension, plumbing, slums
3 types of transportation
Trolleys, horse and buggy, railroad
Outer area of the city
Cheap apartment housing
Who wrote progress and poverty?
Who wrote looking backwards?
Who wrote call of the wild?
Name two western tribes who the US fought
What did the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 say?
Dissolve the tribes as legal entities and give 160 acres to individual families.
What intended effect did the Dawes Act have on Indians?
Give them individual and mostly permanent land, Americanize them
What actual effect did the Dawes act have on Indians?
Ruined their tribal culture
What were segregation laws passed by the southern states called?
Jim Crow laws
What specific language said that separation was not racist?
Separate but equal
What was the decision of please v. Ferguson, and what decade did it happen?
1890s, the laws were constitutional on the grounds that they did not imply and racism towards blacks, and were merely going with state policy.
Justice Harlan made an argument that was adopted by the Supreme Court in what case in 1954?
Brown v. board of education
How did states bypass the 15th amendment (voting) for blacks?
Literacy test, poll tax, grandfather clauses
When, where did the women's suffrage movement begin?
Seneca Falls NY, 1848
What were two other issues that concerned women?
Job ops, household status
Name two women's rights leaders during the gilded age.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Carriem Chapman
Francis Willard founded what Union?
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Why was drinking seem as a women's issue?
Because they have persuasive powers over their husbands
Who was famous for writing rags to riches novels?