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Flashcards in Ch 25 Deck (29):

Jane Addams (1860–1935)

- Illinois
- had a college education
-1889 acquired the decaying Hull mansion in Chicago
- she established Hull House (see below)
- urban American saint in the eyes of many admirers
- courageously condemned war + poverty
- won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
- Daughters of the American Revolution
- Hated her antiwar views
- expelled her from membership in their organization


Florence Kelley

- 1893 lead mov’t to get an Illinois anti-sweatshop law passed
- that protected women workers and prohibited child labor
- “guerrilla warrior in the urban jungle”
- socialist
- battled for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers
- moved to the Henry Street Settlement in New York from the Hull House
- served for 30yrs as general secretary of the National Consumers League


Mary Baker Eddy

- 1879 founded Christian Science
- after she had suffered much ill health
- Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness
- Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875)
- her book that set forth her views
- sold 400,000 copies before her death
- Many Americans converted
- hope of relief from discords and diseases
-had hundreds of thousands of devoted worshipers (by 1910)


Charles Darwin

- English Naturalist
- On the Origin of Species (1859)
- a highly controversial volume by Darwin
- Evolution
- theory that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life
- “the survival of the fittest.’’
- cast serious doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible


Booker T Washington

-1881- Called to head the ‘black normal and industrial school’
- Tuskegee, Alabama
- began w/ 40 students
- taught black students useful trades so that they could gain self-respect and economic security
- “accommodationist”
- self-help approach to solving the nation’s racial problems
-it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy
- Washington avoided the issue of social equality
- felt economic independence would be key to black political + civil rights


W.E.B. Du Bois

- said Booker T. Washington =“Uncle Tom’’
- condemning their race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority
- Ph.D. from Harvard
- skilled historian, sociologist, and poet
-1910- helped to found the NAACP
- demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic
- demanded that the “talented tenth’’ of Af A’s be given full + immediate access to the mainstream of American life.


William James (1842–1910)

- served for 35yrs on the Harvard faculty
- wrote many influential books
- Principles of Psychology (1890)
- established the mdrn discipline of behavioral psychology
- The Will to Believe (1897)
- Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)
- explored religion
- Pragmatism (1907)
- most famous work
- described pragmatism
- The concept of pragmatism held that truth was to be tested by action rather than theories.


Henry George

- Progress and Poverty 1879
- tried to solve “the great enigma of our times’’
- “the association of progress with poverty’’
- sold 3 mil copies
- felt the pressure of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values + showered unearned profits on owners of land
- 100% tax on those windfall profits would eliminate unfair inequalities
- tax ideas = horrifying to the propertied classes
- manuscript was rejected by publishers


Horatio Alger

- 1866- became a writer
- wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction
- sold over 100 million copies
- books said that virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success
- “survival of the purest” and “there is always room at the top”
- esp. nonsmokers, nondrinkers, non-swearers, and non-liars.


Charlotte Perkins Gilman

- 1898 Women and Economics
- a classic of feminist literature
- called on women to abandon their dependent status
- get involved w/ economy
- advocated centralized nurseries + cooperative kitchens to facilitate women’s participation in the work force


Carrie Chapman Catt

- stressed the imp. of giving women the vote if they continue their traditional roles as homemakers + mothers
- women had special responsibility for the health of the family and the education of children
- need a voice on boards of public health, police commissions, and school boards



- city whose growth was stimulated by new methods of travel
- carved into different districts for business, industry, and residential neighborhoods
- which were segregated by race, ethnicity + social class



- social group that has a common national or cultural tradition
- another factor in separating ppl


Settlement House

- a neighborhood center in impoverished areas that tended to serve immigrants
- ex. Hull House (Chicago) + Henry Street Settlement (NY)



- Anti-foreignism- belief that immigrants are inferior
- prominent in 1840s 1850s +1880s



- Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” idea
- cast serious doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible
- Conservatives (Fundamentalists)
- scripture=word of god
- “Modernists’’ (Darwinians)
- refused to accept the Bible in its entirety as either history or science



- “the desire to promote the welfare of others by the generous donation of money to good causes”
- philanthropy supplemented federal grants to higher education
- philanthropist
- described as “one who steals privately and gives publicly’’



held that truth was to be tested by action rather than theories.


Yellow Journalism (aka sensationalism)

- Joseph Pulitzer- leader in techniques of sensationalism in St. Louis
- esp. w/ New York World
- exaggeration of stories and rumors
- use of the colored comic supplements with the “Yellow Kid’’
- gave the name yellow journalism


New Immigration

- came from southern and eastern Europe
- Italians
- Croats
- Slovaks
- Greeks
- Poles
- many worshiped in orthodox churches or synagogues
- came from countries with little history of democratic gov’t
- ppl had grown accustomed to the fact that opportunities for advancement were few
- illiterate + impoverished
- preferred to seek industrial jobs in jam-packed cities rather than move out to farms
- 1880s- 19 percent of the immigrants
- 1910s - 66 percent of the total inflow
- hived together in cities (New York + Chicago)


Social Gospel

- preachers- Walter Rauschenbusch,
- the churches tackle social issues of the day
- predicted tht socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity


Hull House

- 1889 founded by Jane Addams
- the most prominent (not the first) American settlement house
- Located in a poor immigrant neighborhood
- Greeks,
- Italians
- Russians
- Germans
- Offered…
- instruction in English
- counseling to help newcomers cope with American big-city life
- child- care services for working mothers
- cultural activities for neighborhood residents
-1893- successfully lobbied for an Illinois anti-sweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor
- inspired more settlement houses


American Protective Association (APA)

- created in 1887
- 1 million members
- urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office
- sponsored the publication of lustful fantasies about runaway nuns.
- got support form Organized labor and labor unions
- immigrants ⬇️ wages
- leaders argued that…
- American industry was entitled to protection from foreign goods
- American workers were entitled to protection from foreign laborers.



- pro-evolution + refused to accept the Bible in its entirety as either history or science
- preachers were removed from their pulpits
- teachers of biology who embraced evolution were dismissed from their chairs


Chautauqua Movement

- mov’t to educate adults + not just children
- a successor to the lyceum lectures
- 1874 began on the shores of Lake Chautauqua (NY)
- organizers achieved gratifying success through nationwide public lectures
-featuring well-known speakers (ex Mark Twain)
- Chautauqua courses of home study
- 100,000 people enrolled in 1892 alone


Morrill Act 1862

- provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education
- “Land- grant colleges’’ bound themselves to provide certain services ex.military training. - The Hatch Act of 1887- provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges.


Comstock Law

- Anthony Comstock
- made lifelong war on the “immoral’’
- defender of sexual purity
- boasted that he had confiscated no fewer than
- 202,679 “obscene pictures and photos’’
- 4,185 “boxes of pills, powders, etc., used by abortionists’’
- 26 “obscene pictures, framed on walls of saloons’’
- 1873 “armed himself w/ a federal stature”
- illegal to send "obscene" material through the mail
- used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents


Women’s Christian Temperance Union

-est. in 1874
- pushed for the prohibition of alcohol
- lead by Frances E. Willard (also a champion of planned parenthood)
- another leader was Carrie A. Nation
- smashed saloon bottles and bars
- brought considerable disrepute to the prohibition movement because of the violence of her one-woman crusade
- the white ribbon was its symbol of purity


18th Amendment

Prohibition amendment
- declared the production, transport and sale of (though not the consumption or private possession of) alcohol illegal