CH 3 PHARMACOKINETICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 3 PHARMACOKINETICS Deck (29)
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1

The process by which drug molecules move from their site of administration to the blood; movement of nutrients and other substances form the alimentary canal to the circulation:

Absorption

2

The ability of some tissues to attract, accumulate, and store drugs in high concentrations relative to other tissues:

Affinity

3

Network of capillaries in the CNS that inhibits many chemicals and drugs form gaining access to the brain:

Blood-brain barrier

4

The movement of a chemical from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration:

Diffusion

5

The transport of drugs throughout the body after they are absorbed:

Distribution

6

Complex that is formed when a drug that binds reversibly to a plasma protein, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to its site of action:

Drug-protein complexes

7

Administration of drugs orally or through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes:

Enteral route

8

Tablets that have a hard, waxy coating designed to dissolve in the alkaline environment of the small intestine:

Enteric-coated

9

Recycling of drugs and other substances by the circulation of bile through the intestine and liver:

Enterohepatic recirculation

10

Process by which a drug increases the activity of the hepatic microsomal enzymes:

Enzyme induction

11

The process of removing substances from the body:

Excretion

12

Tablets or capsules designed to dissolve very slowly, resulting in a longer duration of action for the medication; also called long-acting sustained release:

Extended release

13

Special anatomic barrier that inhibits many chemicals and drugs from entering the fetus:

Fetal-placental barrier

14

Mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed, enter in to the hepatic portal circulation, and are inactivated by the liver before they reach the general circulation:

First-pass effect

15

As it relates to pharmacotherapy, liver enzymes that metabolize drugs as well as nutrients and other endogenous substances; sometimes called the P-450 system:

Hepatic microsomal enzyme system

16

Multiple, similar forms of an enzyme that perform slightly different metabolic functions:

Isozymes

17

Relatively large dose of a drug given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain a therapeutic response:

Loading dose

18

Amount of drug that keeps the plasma drug concentration in the therapeutic range:

Maintenance doses

19

The process used by the body to chemically change a drug molecule; also called biotransformation:

Metabolism

20

Amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect:

Minimum effective concentration

21

Study of drug movement throughout the body:

pharmacokinetics

22

The length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by one half after administration:

Plasma half-life (t 1/2)

23

Drugs that become more active after they are metabolized:

Prodrugs

24

Drug that is metabolized by a CYP enzyme:

Substrate

25

Practice of monitoring plasma levels of drugs that have low safety profiles and using the data to predict drug action or toxicity:

Therapeutic drug monitoring

26

Dosage that produces the desired effects of a drug:

Therapeutic range

27

Medications applied to the skin or the membranous linings of the eye, ear, nose, respiratory tract, urinary tract, vagina, and rectum:

Topical route

28

Level of drug that results in serious adverse effects:

Toxic concentration

29

Topical delivery method that uses patches that contain a specified amount of medication that is released over a specified time period:

Transdermal patches