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Flashcards in EXAM 3 Deck (40)
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1

Hormone that increases blood glucose levels:

Glucagon

Secreted by the pancreas.

2

Production of glycogen from glucose in the liver:

Glycogenesis

3

Hormone that decreases blood glucose levels:

Insulin

4

Glycogen broken down to release glucose into the bloodstream:

Glycogenolysis

5

Production of glycogen from glucose in the liver:

Glycogenesis

6

The most common endocrine disorder:

Diabetes

7

Three types of diabetes:

Type I, Type II, Gestational

8

Production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources:

Gluconeogenesis

Production of glucose from amino acids and/or glycol

9

This type of diabetes is from the absence of insulin:

Type I

Due to the beta cells being attacked in the pancreas and no longer able to synthesize insulin. Autoimmune disorder.

5-10% of all cases

10

This disorder results from the absence of, deficiency of, or resistance to insulin leading to hyperglycemia:

Diabetes

11

Excessive amounts of urine:

Polyuria

12

Excessive thirst:

Polydipsia

13

This gland lies on both sides of the trachea and secretes hormones that have a profound effect on metabolism, GI function, cardiac function, and growth and development:

Thyroid gland

Tri-iodothyronine (T3)
and
Thyroxine (T4)

Majority of the hormone is in the T4 form and is in circulating mode... Once it enters the peripheral tissues it converts to T3. This is the ACTIVE form.

14

Feedback loop for thyroid gland:

Starts in the Hypothalamus which releases TRH (thyrotropic releasing hormone which travels to the anterior pituitary)

Anterior pituitary receives the TRH which stimulates the release of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

This travels to the thyroid gland which secretes thyroxine (T4).

Once the "loop" receives negative feedback that homeostasis has been reestablished, the hypothalamus acts on this and stops releasing TRH, stopping the loop.

15

This cause of Hypothyroidism is an autoimmune thyroiditis:

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

16

This prototype is identical to endogenous insulin. It is used to decrease blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into the cell (gatekeeper):

Human Regular Insulin (Humulin R) - prototype

Administered subcutaneously or IV
Via insulin syringe, Opticlick pen, or insulin pump.

Used to decrease blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into the cell "gatekeeper".

Both Humulin R and Novlin R are used for short duration insulin therapy.

17

Time at which a physiological response happens:

Onset

18

Time at which the max effect of drug happens:

Peak

19

Total length of time for physiologic response:

Duration

20

Adverse effects of insulin administration:

Hypoglycemia
Insulin shock

21

Requires immediate treatment with glucose:

Hypoglycemia

22

This prototype is used in the emergency treatment of hypoglycemia:

Glucagon (GlucaGen)

Used when the patient is unconscious or unable to eat/drink.

It stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen (glycogenolysis).

It increases glyconeogenesis.

Given by IV, IM, SQ

Adverse effects: nausea/vomiting, hyperglycemia

23

Every type of insulin has a clear appearance, except one. Which one?

Isophane insuline (NPH, Humulin N)

This is the only intermediate timed insulin.
1 - 1.5 hr onset/ 6 - 10 hr peak/ 14 -16 hr duration

24

How long is the onset and duration of Humulin N?

Onset: 1-1.5 hours
Peak: 6-10 hours
Duration: 14-16 hours

25

Which insulins are short durations?

lispro (Humalog) 5-15 min onset/20-90 min peak/3-4 hr duration

aspart (Novolog) 10-20 min onset/1-3 hr peak/3-5 hr duration

regular (Humulin R) 30-45 min onset/2-4 hrs peak/5-6 hr duration

26

What is the name of the only long duration insulin?

Insulin glargine (Lantus)

1 - 2 hr onset
No peak
21 - 24 hr duration

27

Gestational diabetes is intolerance to what?

Glucose

Typical lab values for fasting plasma levels: 60 - 100 mg/dL

Prediabetes: 100-125 mg/dL

126 = diabetes

28

What is the name of the anti-diabetic drug from the mm class?

(Januvia)

29

Name of test measured over 2-3 months:

HbA1C

greater than 6.5% = diabetes

30

Which class does Metformin (Glucophage) belong to?

Biguanides

Metformin (Glucophage): prototype: Very common anti-diabetic drug.

Reduces gluconeogenesis

Decreases reabsorption of glucose in GI tract

Adverse effects: decreased appetite, decreased reabsorption of B12 and folic acid

Rarely causes hypoglycemia

**Contraindicated in patients with renal impairment (can build up to a toxic level), IV contrast dye (time-frame: they have to wait 2 days prior to dye and 2 days after receiving the dye to receive drug**