Ch. 30 Alterations of Cardiovasular Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 30 Alterations of Cardiovasular Function Deck (28)
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1
Q
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that promotes deep venous thrombosis?
  Venous stasis
  Venous endothelial damage
  Polycythemia
  Hypercoagulable states
A

Polycythemia

2
Q
Which of the following terms describes this condition of an occlusion in a blood vessel from a bolus of circulating matter in the bloodstream?
  Thrombus
  Embolus 
  Thrombophlebitis
  Foam cell
A

Embolus

3
Q
Which of the following is a factor that leads to aortic aneurysm?
  Lack of atherosclerosis
  Deficiencies in wall collagen
  Excessive elastin
  Decreased oxygen radicals
A

Deficiencies in wall collagen

4
Q
A young woman presents with pallor, numbness, and a sensation of cold temperature of her digits. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
  Raynaud phenomenon
  Thromboangiitis obliterans
  Peripheral vascular disease
  Varicose veins
A

Raynaud phenomenon

5
Q

Which statement is FALSE regarding hypertension?
Approximately 65% of Americans older than the age of 60 have hypertension.
Less than two thirds of those with hypertension have it controlled.
It is defined as a systolic pressure of greater than 90 mmHg.
It is systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or greater.

A

It is defined as a systolic pressure of greater than 90 mmHg.

6
Q
A person experiences an elevated systolic pressure accompanied by normal diastolic pressure (less than 90 mmHg). Which of the following is the correct term for this condition?
  Primary hypertension
  Secondary hypertension
  Tertiary hypertension
  Isolated systolic hypertension
A

Isolated systolic hypertension

7
Q

Which of the following is NOT associated with hypertension?
Family history positive for hypertension
Asian race
High dietary sodium
Glucose intolerance

A

Asian race

8
Q

Which of the following complications occurs secondary to hypertension?
Cardiovascular muscle atrophy
Hypoglycemia
Congestive heart failure
Decreased demand for coronary perfusion

A

Congestive heart failure

9
Q

Which of the following is TRUE regarding atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is an acute process of heart muscle degeneration.
Atherosclerosis is thickening and hardening of the vessel wall.
A plaque is caused by neutrophils.
Fatty streaks and foam cells are identical.

A

Atherosclerosis is thickening and hardening of the vessel wall

10
Q

Which of the following pairs regarding dyslipidemia is correct?
High-density lipoprotein–triglycerides and fat packages
Very low-density lipoproteins–triglycerides and proteins
Low-density lipoproteins–phospholipids and proteins
Chylomicrons–triglycerides and phospholipids

A

Very low-densisty lipoproteins–triglycerides and proteins

11
Q
A woman presents with chest pain that occurs at rest. She is found to have abnormal vasospasm of her coronary arteries. Which of the following is the BEST description of this case?
  Stable angina
  Prinzmetal angina
  Silent ischemia
  Angina pectoris
A

Prinzmetal angina

12
Q
Which of the following is NOT a sign of atherosclerosis?
  Xanthelasmas
  Arcus senilis
  Atrial septal defect
  Extra-rapid heart sounds
A

Atrial septal defect

13
Q

Which of the following is TRUE regarding cellular injury of the myocardium?
Cardiac cells can withstand ischemic conditions for about 60 minutes.
ECG changes are visible after approximately 120 seconds.
Myocardial cells remain viable if blood flow returns within 20 minutes.
After 20 seconds of decreased blood flow, myocardial cells become cooler.

A

Myocardial cells remain viable if blood flow returns within 20 minutes

14
Q
Which of the following is NOT a functional change expected from acute myocardial infarction?
  Decreased contractility
  Decreased stroke volume
  Increased ejection fraction
  Increased left ventricular compliance
A

Increased ejection fraction

15
Q
A person is being transferred from another medical facility with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Which of the following is NOT a typical symptom of acute myocardial infarction?
  Cough
  Diaphoresis
  Absence of pain
  Crushing pain
A

Cough

16
Q
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme released by the myocardial muscle?
  CK-MB
  LDH
  AST
  Troponin I
A

AST

17
Q
Which of the following is the MOST common complication of AMI?
  Dressler postinfarction syndrome
  Dysrhythmia
  Pericarditis
  Congestive heart failure
A

Dysrhythmia

18
Q
An individual is experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. Which of the following medications would NOT be expected on the admission orders?
  Beta-blockers
  Aspirin
  Nitrates
  Calcium chloride
A

Calcium chloride

19
Q

A person sustained a ruptured myocardial wall. Which of the following is accurate regarding the cause of this rupture?
Thickening of the myocardial wall
Increased collateral flow
Shearing effect against stiffened necrotic tissue
Softened, elastic area of muscle

A

Shearing effect against stiffened necrotic tissue

20
Q
A 23-year-old presents with severe chest pain that worsens with respiratory movements and with lying down. On exam, there is a friction rub. Which of the following treatments is the most appropriate for this condition?
  Analgesics
  Percutaneous coronary intervention
  CABG
  Beta-blockers
A

Analgesics

21
Q
A person has been diagnosed with a pericardial effusion that is frank blood. Which of the following is associated with a bloody effusion?
  Tuberculosis
  Coagulation defect
  Neoplasm
  Left heart failure
A

Coagulation defect

22
Q
Which of the following medical conditions is NOT associated with pericardial effusion?
  Renal failure
  Breast cancer
  Aortic stenosis
  Open heart surgery
A

Aortic stenosis

23
Q
Which of the following is a result of dilated cardiomyopathy?
  Increased ejection fraction
  Decreased end-diastolic volume
  Increased stroke volume
  Biventricular failure
A

Biventricular failure

24
Q
Which of the following medications is used in dilated cardiomyopathy?
  Digitalis
  Calcium channel blockers
  Beta-blockers
  Fibrinolytics
A

Digitalis

25
Q

Which of the following is NOT one of the three common causes of aortic stenosis?
Inflammatory damage caused by rheumatic heart disease
Acute myocardial infarction
Congenital malformation of the bicuspid valve
Degeneration with aging

A

Acute myocardial infarction

26
Q
A person has impaired blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Which of the following valvular problems does this describe?
  Mitral stenosis
  Mitral regurgitation
  Aortic stenosis
  Aortic regurgitation
A

Mitral stenosis

27
Q
A person has a loud pansystolic murmur that radiates to the back and axilla. Which of the following valvular abnormalities is this describing?
  Mitral stenosis
  Mitral regurgitation
  Aortic stenosis
  Aortic regurgitation
A

Mitral regurgitation

28
Q
A man has rheumatic fever. Which of the following valves is most commonly affected?
  Aortic
  Tricuspid
  Pulmonic
  Mitral
A

Mitral