Ch. 31 Alteration of Cardiovasular Function in Children Flashcards Preview

Patho Test 2 Evolve/Elsevier > Ch. 31 Alteration of Cardiovasular Function in Children > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 31 Alteration of Cardiovasular Function in Children Deck (13)
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1
Q
Which of the following structures allows for right-to-left shunting, which is necessary for fetal circulation?
  Ostium primum
  Ostium secundum
  Foramen ovale
  Bulbus cordis
A

Foramen ovale

2
Q
Which of the following is the appropriate name for the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery?
  Ductus arteriosus
  Ligamentum venosum
  Foramen ovale
  Bulbus cordis
A

Ductus arteriosus

3
Q

Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding features of cardiac function of the newborn?
Heart rate is 220 to 280.
Cardiac output is low.
Oxygen consumption doubles.
The cardiovascular system is small compared with body surface area.

A

Oxygen consumption doubles

4
Q

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the epidemiology of congenital heart defects?
There are 95 types of congenital heart disease.
Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of death.
Fifty percent of deaths due to congenital heart disease occur in the first year of life.
The underlying cause is known in 90% of cases.

A

Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of death

5
Q
Which of the following has NOT been associated with congenital heart defects?
  Stillbirths
  High birth weight
  Maternal dilantin use
  Maternal rubella
A

High birth weight

6
Q
Which of the following is a sign of left ventricular heart failure in an infant?
  Poor urination
  Poor feeding
  Normal respirations
  No abdominal findings
A

Poor feeding

7
Q

Which of the following is NOT a cause of hypoxemia and cyanosis?
Lesions that cause right ventricular outflow tract obstruction
Defects involving mixing of saturated and unsaturated blood
Constriction of the ductus arteriosus
Transposition of the great arteries

A

Constriction of the ductus arteriosus

8
Q

Which of the following is TRUE regarding an atrial septal defect?
A sinus venosus defect is an opening in the center of the septum.
An ostium secundum defect is found low in the septum.
An ostium primum defect is found low in the septum.
An ostium primum is the most common defect found.

A

An ostium primum defect is found low in the septum

9
Q
A child is having a routine physical examination to enter grade school. There is auscultation of a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur. Which of the following is most likely?
  Mitral valve prolapse
  Atrial septal defect
  Ventricular septal defect
  Congestive heart failure
A

Atrial septal defect

10
Q

Which of the following is the correct definition of Eisenmenger syndrome?
Left-to-right shunt
Oxygenated blood flows into pulmonary circulation
Deoxygenated blood flows into systemic circulation
Correction of the VSD

A

Deoxygenated blood flows into systemic circulation

11
Q
Which of the following is NOT found in tetralogy of Fallot?
  Atrial septal defect
  Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  Pulmonary stenosis
  Right ventricular hypertrophy
A

Atrial septal defect

12
Q

An infant born with a congenital heart defect has sudden onset of dyspnea, cyanosis, and restlessness. Which of the following is this infant most likely experiencing?
“Tet” spell associated with tetralogy of Fallot
Ventricular septal defect
Onset of Eisenmenger syndrome
Atrial septal defect

A

“Tet” spell associated with tetralogy of Fallot

13
Q
A child has been noted to have hypertension with decreased pulses in the lower extremities. Which of the following is the most likely congenital cause for this finding?
  Tricuspid atresia
  Atrial septal defect
  Pulmonary stenosis
  Coarctation of the aorta
A

Coarctation of the aorta