The primary output of breaking down the WBS's work packages.
The identification of more than one solution. Consider roles, materials, tools, and approaches to the project work.
A somewhat unreliable estimating approach that relies on historical information to predict what current activity durations should be. Analogous estimating is more reliable, however, than team member recollections. Analogous estimating is also known as top-down estimating, and is a form of expert judgment.
The most accurate time and cost estimating approach a project manager can use. This estimating approach starts at "the bottom" of the project and considers every activity, its predecessor and successor activities, and the exact amount of resources needed to complete each activity.
A WBS entry that considers the time, cost, and scope measurements for that deliverable within the WBS. The estimated performance is compared against the actual performance to measure overall performance for the deliverables within that control account. The specifics of a control account are documented in a control account plan.
A schedule compression approach that adds more resources to activities on the critical path to complete the project earlier. When crashing a project, costs are added, as the associated labor expenses increase.
A network analysis approach where the deadlines associated with individual tasks are removed and the only date that matters is the promised due date of the project deliverable. CCM works to modify the project schedule based on the availability of project resources rather than on the pure sequence of events, as in the critical path method.
Critical chain method
The path in the project network diagram that cannot be delayed, or the project completion date will be late. There can be more than one critical path. Activities in the critical path have no float.
These dependencies are the preferred order of activities. Project managers should use these relationships at their discretion and document the logic behind the decision. Discretionary dependencies allow activities to happen in a preferred order because of best practices, conditions unique to the project work, or external events.
The earliest a project activity can finish. Used in the forward pass procedure to discover the critical path and the project float.
The earliest a project activity can begin. Used in the forward pass procedure to discover the critical path and the project float.
As the name implies, these are dependencies outside of the project's control. Examples include the delivery of equipment from a vendor; the deliverable of another project; or the decision of a committee, lawsuit, or expected new law.
A schedule compression method that changes the relationship of activities. With fast tracking, activities that would normally be done in sequence are allowed to be done in parallel or with some overlap. Fast tracking can be accomplished by changing the relation of activities from FS to SS or by adding lead time to downstream activities. However, fast tracking does add risk to the project.
An activity relationship type that requires the current activity be finished before its successor can finish.
An activity relationship type that requires the current activity be finished before its successor can start.
A representation of a project network diagram that is often used for outsourced portions of a project, repetitive work within a project, or a subproject. Also called a subnet.
This is the total time a single activity can be delayed without affecting the early start of any successor activities.
Logic that describes activities that must happen in a particular order. For example, the dirt must be excavated before the foundation can be built. The foundation must be in place before the framing can begin.
Positive time that moves two or more activities farther apart.
The latest a project activity can finish. Used in the backward pass procedure to discover the critical path and the project float.
The latest a project activity can begin. Used in the backward pass procedure to discover the critical path and the project float.
Negative time that brings two or more activities closer together.
A percentage of the project duration to combat Parkinson's Law. When project activities become late, their lateness is subtracted from the management reserve.
These dependencies are the natural order of activities. For example, you can't begin building your house until your foundation is in place. These relationships are called hard logic.
A project simulation approach named after the world-famous gambling city. This predicts how scenarios may work out, given any number of variables. The process doesn't actually churn out a specific answer, but a range of possible answers. When Monte Carlo analysis is applied to a schedule, it can examine, for example, the optimistic completion date, the pessimistic completion date, and the most likely completion date for each activity in the project and then predict a mean for the project schedule.
Monte Carlo analysis
A quantitatively based duration estimate that uses mathematical formulas to predict how long an activity will take based on the quantities of work to be completed.
A theory that states: "Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion." It is considered with time estimating, because bloated or padded activity estimates will fill the amount of time allotted to the activity.
A WBS entry located below a control account and above the work packages. A planning package signifies that there is more planning that needs to be completed for this specific deliverable.
A network diagram that shows activities in nodes and the relationship between each activity. Predecessors come before the current activity and successors come after the current activity.
Precedence diagramming method
Calendars that identify when the project work will occur.
This is the total time the project can be delayed without passing the customer-expected completion date.
A diagram that visualizes the flow of the project activities and their relationships to other project activities.
Project network diagram
An update to the work breakdown structure.
This is a hierarchical breakdown of the project resources by category and resource type. For example, you could have a category of equipment, a category of human resources, and a category of materials. Within each category, you could identify the types of equipment your project will use, the types of human resources, and the types of materials.
Resource breakdown structure
Calendars that identify when project resources are available for the project work.
A method to flatten the schedule when resources are over-allocated. Resource leveling can be applied using different methods to accomplish different goals. One of the most common methods is to ensure that workers are not overextended on activities.
The imminent work is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a high level. This is a form of progressive elaboration.
Rolling wave planning
The order of the activities doesn't necessarily have to happen in a specific order. For example, you could install the light fixtures first, then the carpet, and then paint the room. The project manager could use soft logic to change the order of the activities if he so desired.
An activity relationship that requires an activity to start so that its successor can finish. This is the most unusual of all the activity relationship types.
An activity relationship type that requires the current activity to start before its successor can start.
A representation of a project network diagram that is often used for outsourced portions of projects, repetitive work within a project, or a subproject. Also called a fragnet.
A previous project that can be adapted for the current project.
An estimating technique for each activity that requires optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates to be created. Based on these three estimates, an average can be created to predict how long the activity should take.
This is the total time an activity can be delayed without delaying project completion.
The smallest item in the work breakdown structure.