Flashcards in Ch 9 Social Interaction Deck (49):
Position in society that is used to classify someone
One that is given involuntarily - based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, and family background
Gained as a result of one’s efforts or choices
Status by which a person is most identified; typically most important status and affects all aspects of life; may cause pigeonholing (viewing ind only through lens of master status)
Set of beliefs, values, attitudes and norms that define expectations for those who hold the status
Carrying out of behaviors associated with role
Person with whom one is interacting
Various roles associated with a status
Difficulty satisfying requirements and expectations of multiple roles
Difficulty satisfying multiple expectations of the same role
Dropping of one identity for another
Two or more people who share similar characteristics and a sense of unity.
Difference between social group and just a group of people
Groups to which an ind belongs
Group with which ind competes or is in opposition
Groups that establish the terms by which inds evaluate themselves
Direct interactions, close bonds intimate relationships with members
Superficial interactions with few emotional bonds. Often temporary
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Tonnies’s theory is “community and society”.
Gemeinschaft (community) refers to groups unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared belief, ancestry or geography.
Gesellschaft (society) refers to groups formed because of mutual self-interests working toward the same goal
Interaction process analysis
Technique for observing l, classifying and measuring the interactions within small groups.
Revised to system for multiple level observation of groups (SYMLOG)
System of multiple level observation of groups (SYMLOG)
Based on the belief that there are three fundamental dimensions of interaction: dominance vs. submission, friendliness vs. unfriendliness, and instrumentally controlled vs. emotionally expressive
Group holds power over its members creating group pressure that ultimately shapes members’ behavior. Compliant even when the group goals are in direct contrast to personal goals
Describes the observable pattern of social relationships among inds or groups. Patterns determined by mapping interactions. Benefits and constraints or obligations
Dense with strong ties
Looser and contain weaker ties
Entities that are set up to achieve specific goals and are characterized by having a structure and a culture
Different from groups - continue despite the departure of an ind member; expressed goals generally in written format; characterized by the hierarchical allotment of formal roles or duties to members. These can be quite large
This changes throughout history. Once clans or family. Now the bureaucracy
Rational system of political organization, administration, discipline and control. Generally six characteristics: paid, nonelected officials on fixed salary, officials who are provided rights and privileges as a result of making their career out of holding office, regular salary increases seniority rights or promotions upon passing exams or milestones; officials who enter by holding advanced degree or training, responsibilities obligations rigidly defined by organization, responsibility for meeting the demands of one’s position. Slow to change and less efficient
Iron law of oligarchy
Democratic or bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being riled by an elite group. Because of need for few to carry out assignments and need for specialization
Commonly used to refer to a shift in focus toward efficiency, predictability l, calculability, and control in societies
Process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors. People use specific strategies to shape what others will think of them.
Often used interchangeably with impression management
Basic model of emotional expression
First established by Darwin who stated that emotional expression involves a number of components: facial, behaviors, postures, vocal changes, psychological changes. Similar across cultures
There are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced but that there is a cognitive antecedent to emotional expression
Social construction model
Assumes there is no biological basis for emotions but they’re based in experiences in the situational context alone. Certain emotions can only exist within social encounters and that emotions are expressed differently and play different roles across cultures
Cultural expectations of emotions. Govern which emotions can be expressed and to what degree
Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors among members of the same culture that are organized around a central theme. Influence rules for expressing or suppressing emotions and can influence the way emotions are experienced. Example - in America happiness is individual and internal. In Japan it is rational and collective
Refers to our attempt to influence how others perceive us. Done through regulation or controlling of info in social interactions. Often used synonymously with self presentation. Three selves: the authentic (who the person actually is, including positive and negative attributes) the ideal (who we would like to be under optimal conditions), and the tactical (who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others’ expectations of us)
Giving information about yourself to establish an identity
Using props, appearance, emotional expression, or associations with others to create a positive image
Using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over
Making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses
Imposing an identity onto another person. As a good mcat student you should....
Erving Goffman - metaphor of a theatrical performance to describe how individuals create images of themselves in various situations. One’s status is a part in a performance. One’s role is the script.
Irving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach - this is where the actor is in front of the audience, and performs according to the setting, role, and script in order to conform to the image he wants others to see
In Irving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach- where actor is not being observed by an audience and he is free to act in ways that may not be congruent with his desired public image without having to worry about ruining his performance
Ability to convey info by speech, writing, signals, or behavior
Transmission of info via use of words, whether spoken, written or signed. Often dependent on nonverbal cues
Refers to how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words.