Ch 9 Social Interaction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9 Social Interaction Deck (49):
1

Status

Position in society that is used to classify someone

2

Ascribed status

One that is given involuntarily - based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, and family background

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Achieved status

Gained as a result of one’s efforts or choices

4

Master status

Status by which a person is most identified; typically most important status and affects all aspects of life; may cause pigeonholing (viewing ind only through lens of master status)

5

Role

Set of beliefs, values, attitudes and norms that define expectations for those who hold the status

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Role performance

Carrying out of behaviors associated with role

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Role partner

Person with whom one is interacting

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Role set

Various roles associated with a status

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Role conflict

Difficulty satisfying requirements and expectations of multiple roles

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Role strain

Difficulty satisfying multiple expectations of the same role

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Role exit

Dropping of one identity for another

12

Group

Two or more people who share similar characteristics and a sense of unity.
Difference between social group and just a group of people

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In-group

Groups to which an ind belongs

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Outgroup

Group with which ind competes or is in opposition

15

Reference groups

Groups that establish the terms by which inds evaluate themselves

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Primary group

Direct interactions, close bonds intimate relationships with members

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Secondary group

Superficial interactions with few emotional bonds. Often temporary

18

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Tonnies’s theory is “community and society”.
Gemeinschaft (community) refers to groups unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared belief, ancestry or geography.
Gesellschaft (society) refers to groups formed because of mutual self-interests working toward the same goal

19

Interaction process analysis

Technique for observing l, classifying and measuring the interactions within small groups.
Revised to system for multiple level observation of groups (SYMLOG)

20

System of multiple level observation of groups (SYMLOG)

Based on the belief that there are three fundamental dimensions of interaction: dominance vs. submission, friendliness vs. unfriendliness, and instrumentally controlled vs. emotionally expressive

21

Group conformity

Group holds power over its members creating group pressure that ultimately shapes members’ behavior. Compliant even when the group goals are in direct contrast to personal goals

22

Network

Describes the observable pattern of social relationships among inds or groups. Patterns determined by mapping interactions. Benefits and constraints or obligations

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Immediate networks

Dense with strong ties

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Distant networks

Looser and contain weaker ties

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Organizations

Entities that are set up to achieve specific goals and are characterized by having a structure and a culture

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Formal organizations

Different from groups - continue despite the departure of an ind member; expressed goals generally in written format; characterized by the hierarchical allotment of formal roles or duties to members. These can be quite large

27

Characteristic institution

This changes throughout history. Once clans or family. Now the bureaucracy

28

Bureaucracy

Rational system of political organization, administration, discipline and control. Generally six characteristics: paid, nonelected officials on fixed salary, officials who are provided rights and privileges as a result of making their career out of holding office, regular salary increases seniority rights or promotions upon passing exams or milestones; officials who enter by holding advanced degree or training, responsibilities obligations rigidly defined by organization, responsibility for meeting the demands of one’s position. Slow to change and less efficient

29

Iron law of oligarchy

Democratic or bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being riled by an elite group. Because of need for few to carry out assignments and need for specialization

30

McDonaldization

Commonly used to refer to a shift in focus toward efficiency, predictability l, calculability, and control in societies

31

Self presentation

Process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors. People use specific strategies to shape what others will think of them.
Often used interchangeably with impression management

32

Basic model of emotional expression

First established by Darwin who stated that emotional expression involves a number of components: facial, behaviors, postures, vocal changes, psychological changes. Similar across cultures

33

Appraisal model

There are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced but that there is a cognitive antecedent to emotional expression

34

Social construction model

Assumes there is no biological basis for emotions but they’re based in experiences in the situational context alone. Certain emotions can only exist within social encounters and that emotions are expressed differently and play different roles across cultures

35

Display rules

Cultural expectations of emotions. Govern which emotions can be expressed and to what degree

36

Cultural syndrome

Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors among members of the same culture that are organized around a central theme. Influence rules for expressing or suppressing emotions and can influence the way emotions are experienced. Example - in America happiness is individual and internal. In Japan it is rational and collective

37

Impression management

Refers to our attempt to influence how others perceive us. Done through regulation or controlling of info in social interactions. Often used synonymously with self presentation. Three selves: the authentic (who the person actually is, including positive and negative attributes) the ideal (who we would like to be under optimal conditions), and the tactical (who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others’ expectations of us)

38

Self disclosure

Giving information about yourself to establish an identity

39

Managing appearances

Using props, appearance, emotional expression, or associations with others to create a positive image

40

Ingratiation

Using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over

41

Aligning actions

Making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses

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Alter-casting

Imposing an identity onto another person. As a good mcat student you should....

43

Dramaturgical approach

Erving Goffman - metaphor of a theatrical performance to describe how individuals create images of themselves in various situations. One’s status is a part in a performance. One’s role is the script.

44

Front stage

Irving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach - this is where the actor is in front of the audience, and performs according to the setting, role, and script in order to conform to the image he wants others to see

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Back stage

In Irving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach- where actor is not being observed by an audience and he is free to act in ways that may not be congruent with his desired public image without having to worry about ruining his performance

46

Communication

Ability to convey info by speech, writing, signals, or behavior

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Verbal communication

Transmission of info via use of words, whether spoken, written or signed. Often dependent on nonverbal cues

48

Nonverbal communication

Refers to how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words.

49

Animal communication

Defined as any behavior of one animal that affects the behavior of another