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Flashcards in ch 12 - Social Stratification Deck (45)
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1

social class

a category of people who share a similar socioeconomic position in society; can be identified by looking at economic opportunities, job positions, lifestyles, attitudes, and behaviors of a given piece of society

2

social stratification

focuses on social inequalities and studies the basic question of who gets what and why

3

socioeconomic status (SES)

may depend on ascribed or achieved status

4

ascribed status

derives from clearly identifiable characteristics, such as age, gender, skin color (involuntary)

5

achieved status

acquired via direct, individual efforts (merit)

6

difference between castes (and estate) systems and class systems

castes are defined by ascribed status; classes are defined by achieved status

7

prestige

refers to the amount of positive regard society has for a given person or idea

8

power

the ability to affect others' behaviors through real or perceived rewards and punishments, based on the unequal distribution of valued resources

9

Marxist theory

the proletariat (have nots) could overthrow the bourgeoisie (haves), as well as the entire capitalist economy by developing class consciousness

10

class consciousness

refers to the organization of the working class around shared goals and recognition of a need for collective political action

11

false consciousness

major barrier to class consciousness: misperception of one's actual position within society; in case of Marxism, members of proletariat were either not aware of their class, could not recognize commonalities between their own experiences and others, or otherwise were too clouded to assemble into revolutionaries

12

Anomie

refers to a lack of social norms, or breakdown of social bonds between an individual and society; further accelerates social inequality

13

strain theory

focuses on how anomic conditions can lead to deviance; anomic conditions include excessive individualism, social inequality, and isolation

14

social capital

can be considered the investments people make in their society in return for economic or collective rewards; the greater the investment, the higher the level of social integration and inclusion

15

privilege

inequality in opportunity

16

cultural capital

refers to the benefits one receives from knowledge, abilities and skills

17

strong ties

refer to peer group and kinship contacts, which are quantitatively small and qualitatively powerful

18

weak ties

refer to social connections that are personally superficial, such as associates, but that are large in number and provide connections to a wide range of other individuals

19

intersectionality

the compounding of disadvantage seen in individuals who belong to more than one oppressed group

20

five ethnicities model

white, black, Asian, Latino, Native American

21

social mobility

typically the result of an economic and occupational structure that allows one to acquire higher-level employment opportunities given proper credentials and experience requirements

22

intragenerational changes in social status

happen within a person's lifetime

23

intergenerational changes in social status

from parents to children

24

meritocracy

based on intellectual talent and achievement, a means for a person to advance up the social ladder

25

plutocracy

a rule by the upper classes

26

vertical mobility

upward and down mobility, movement from one class to another

27

horizontal mobility

change in occupation or lifestyle that remains within the same social class

28

poverty

low socioeconomic status and lack of possessions or financial resources

29

social reproduction

social inequality, especially poverty, can be reproduced or passed on from one generation to the next

30

absolute poverty

socioeconomic condition in which people do not have enough money or resources to maintain quality of living that includes basic life necessities such as shelter, food, clothing, and water.