Ch 10 Social Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 Social Thinking Deck (67)
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1

Interpersonal attraction

Phenomenon of inds liking each other. Factors include similarity, self-disclosure, reciprocity, and proximity. The more symmetric a face the more attractive.
Also the golden ratio 1.618:1 we find attractive

2

Self disclosure

Sharing one’s thoughts, fears m, goals with another and being met with nonjudgmental empathy

3

Reciprocal liking

The phenomenon whereby people like others better when they believe the other person likes them.

4

Mere exposure effect

Also called familiarity effect - says that people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently

5

Amygdala

Part of the brain responsible for associating stimuli and their corresponding rewards or punishments. If activated it increases aggression. The prefrontal cortex can put brakes in it

6

Cognitive neoassociation model

States we are more likely to respond to others with aggression when we are feeling negative emotions - tiredness, sick, frustration, pain

7

John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth

John Bowlby noticed negative effects of isolation of orphans after WWII. Mary Ainsworth expounded to say attachment in first six months to two years is needed from which infants can explore. Four main types of attachment: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized

8

Secure attachment

Child has consistent caregiver and is able to go out and explore knowing there is a secure base to return to. Trusts caregiver.

9

Avoidant attachment

Results when caregiver has little or no response to distressed child. Children show no preference between a stranger and a caregiver. Little or no distress when caregiver leaves. Little or no relief on return

10

Ambivalent attachment

Occurs when caregiver has an inconsistent response to child’s distress, sometimes responding appropriately sometimes neglectfully. Child has no secure base and cannot rely on caregiver. Child is distressed on separation from caregiver but often has mixed response on caregiver’s return.
Sometimes referred to as anxious-ambivalent attachment because child is always anxious about reliability of caregiver

11

Disorganized attachment

Children show no clear pattern of behavior in response to caregiver’s absence or presence but show a mix of different behaviors. Can include avoidance or resistance; seeming dazed, frozen or confused, or repetitive behaviors like rocking. Erratic behavior and social withdrawal by caregiver and may be red flag for abuse

12

Social support

Perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network. Categories include emotional, esteem, material, informational, and network support

13

Emotional support

Listening, affirming, empathizing with someone’s feelings

14

Esteem support

Similar to emotional but more directly affirms qualities and skills of a person. Reminding someone of skills they possess to tackle a problem.

15

Material support

Also called tangible support - Any type of financial or material contribution to another

16

Informational support

Providing info that will help someone. I.e explanation of diagnoses

17

Network support

Gives a person a sense of belonging. Physically, accomplished through gestures, group activities or shared experiences

18

Foraging

Seeking out and eating food - driven by biological, psychological, and social influences.
Sensation of hunger controlled by hypothalamus - lateral promotes hunger. Ventromedial responds to cues that we are full

19

Mating system

Organization of a group’s sexual behavior - include monogamy, polygamy (polygyny for males with multiple females, polyandry for females with multiple males) and promiscuity

20

Mate choice

Also called intersexual selection -selection based on attraction

21

Mate bias

How choosy members of a species are

22

Direct benefits

Mate bias provides material advantages, protection or emotional support

23

Indirect benefits

Mate bias promotes better survival in offspring

24

Five recognized mechanisms of mate choice

Phenotypic benefits - observable attractive traits related to survival
Sensory bias - development of a trait to meet preexisting preference.
Fisherian or runaway selection - sexually desirable traits not related to survival.
Indicator traits - signify good health and well being.
Genetic compatibility - mate pairs that have complementary genetics

25

Altruism

Helping behavior that costs person doing it

26

Empathy-altruism hypothesis

Person helps another when he feels empathy for that person regardless of cost

27

Game theory

Attempts to explain decision making behavior - game is defined by the players. Info and actions available to each at decision points and payoffs associated with outcomes. In biology payoffs refer to fitness

28

Evolutionary stable strategy

ESS - game theorists developed this to say when ESS is developed in a given population in a specific environment natural selection will prevent alternative strategies from arising. ESS is passed down and object of game is becoming more fit than competitors

29

Hawk-dove game

Game theory - three outcomes: hawk vs hawk - one will win and one will lose. Hawk vs dove - dove will lose. Dove vs dove - they will share resources. Dove will attempt to avoid a fight. Based on value of reward and cost of fighting

30

Alternatives for competitors

Altruism - donor gives at cost to himself.
Cooperation - both donor and recipient benefit by cooperating.
Spite - both donor and recipient are negatively impacted
Selfishness - donor benefits while recipient is largely negatively impacted