Flashcards in Ch 10 Social Thinking Deck (67)
Phenomenon of inds liking each other. Factors include similarity, self-disclosure, reciprocity, and proximity. The more symmetric a face the more attractive.
Also the golden ratio 1.618:1 we find attractive
Sharing one’s thoughts, fears m, goals with another and being met with nonjudgmental empathy
The phenomenon whereby people like others better when they believe the other person likes them.
Mere exposure effect
Also called familiarity effect - says that people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently
Part of the brain responsible for associating stimuli and their corresponding rewards or punishments. If activated it increases aggression. The prefrontal cortex can put brakes in it
Cognitive neoassociation model
States we are more likely to respond to others with aggression when we are feeling negative emotions - tiredness, sick, frustration, pain
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
John Bowlby noticed negative effects of isolation of orphans after WWII. Mary Ainsworth expounded to say attachment in first six months to two years is needed from which infants can explore. Four main types of attachment: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized
Child has consistent caregiver and is able to go out and explore knowing there is a secure base to return to. Trusts caregiver.
Results when caregiver has little or no response to distressed child. Children show no preference between a stranger and a caregiver. Little or no distress when caregiver leaves. Little or no relief on return
Occurs when caregiver has an inconsistent response to child’s distress, sometimes responding appropriately sometimes neglectfully. Child has no secure base and cannot rely on caregiver. Child is distressed on separation from caregiver but often has mixed response on caregiver’s return.
Sometimes referred to as anxious-ambivalent attachment because child is always anxious about reliability of caregiver
Children show no clear pattern of behavior in response to caregiver’s absence or presence but show a mix of different behaviors. Can include avoidance or resistance; seeming dazed, frozen or confused, or repetitive behaviors like rocking. Erratic behavior and social withdrawal by caregiver and may be red flag for abuse
Perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network. Categories include emotional, esteem, material, informational, and network support
Listening, affirming, empathizing with someone’s feelings
Similar to emotional but more directly affirms qualities and skills of a person. Reminding someone of skills they possess to tackle a problem.
Also called tangible support - Any type of financial or material contribution to another
Providing info that will help someone. I.e explanation of diagnoses
Gives a person a sense of belonging. Physically, accomplished through gestures, group activities or shared experiences
Seeking out and eating food - driven by biological, psychological, and social influences.
Sensation of hunger controlled by hypothalamus - lateral promotes hunger. Ventromedial responds to cues that we are full
Organization of a group’s sexual behavior - include monogamy, polygamy (polygyny for males with multiple females, polyandry for females with multiple males) and promiscuity
Also called intersexual selection -selection based on attraction
How choosy members of a species are
Mate bias provides material advantages, protection or emotional support
Mate bias promotes better survival in offspring
Five recognized mechanisms of mate choice
Phenotypic benefits - observable attractive traits related to survival
Sensory bias - development of a trait to meet preexisting preference.
Fisherian or runaway selection - sexually desirable traits not related to survival.
Indicator traits - signify good health and well being.
Genetic compatibility - mate pairs that have complementary genetics
Helping behavior that costs person doing it
Person helps another when he feels empathy for that person regardless of cost
Attempts to explain decision making behavior - game is defined by the players. Info and actions available to each at decision points and payoffs associated with outcomes. In biology payoffs refer to fitness
Evolutionary stable strategy
ESS - game theorists developed this to say when ESS is developed in a given population in a specific environment natural selection will prevent alternative strategies from arising. ESS is passed down and object of game is becoming more fit than competitors
Game theory - three outcomes: hawk vs hawk - one will win and one will lose. Hawk vs dove - dove will lose. Dove vs dove - they will share resources. Dove will attempt to avoid a fight. Based on value of reward and cost of fighting