Ch 10 Social Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 Social Thinking Deck (67):
1

Interpersonal attraction

Phenomenon of inds liking each other. Factors include similarity, self-disclosure, reciprocity, and proximity. The more symmetric a face the more attractive.
Also the golden ratio 1.618:1 we find attractive

2

Self disclosure

Sharing one’s thoughts, fears m, goals with another and being met with nonjudgmental empathy

3

Reciprocal liking

The phenomenon whereby people like others better when they believe the other person likes them.

4

Mere exposure effect

Also called familiarity effect - says that people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently

5

Amygdala

Part of the brain responsible for associating stimuli and their corresponding rewards or punishments. If activated it increases aggression. The prefrontal cortex can put brakes in it

6

Cognitive neoassociation model

States we are more likely to respond to others with aggression when we are feeling negative emotions - tiredness, sick, frustration, pain

7

John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth

John Bowlby noticed negative effects of isolation of orphans after WWII. Mary Ainsworth expounded to say attachment in first six months to two years is needed from which infants can explore. Four main types of attachment: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized

8

Secure attachment

Child has consistent caregiver and is able to go out and explore knowing there is a secure base to return to. Trusts caregiver.

9

Avoidant attachment

Results when caregiver has little or no response to distressed child. Children show no preference between a stranger and a caregiver. Little or no distress when caregiver leaves. Little or no relief on return

10

Ambivalent attachment

Occurs when caregiver has an inconsistent response to child’s distress, sometimes responding appropriately sometimes neglectfully. Child has no secure base and cannot rely on caregiver. Child is distressed on separation from caregiver but often has mixed response on caregiver’s return.
Sometimes referred to as anxious-ambivalent attachment because child is always anxious about reliability of caregiver

11

Disorganized attachment

Children show no clear pattern of behavior in response to caregiver’s absence or presence but show a mix of different behaviors. Can include avoidance or resistance; seeming dazed, frozen or confused, or repetitive behaviors like rocking. Erratic behavior and social withdrawal by caregiver and may be red flag for abuse

12

Social support

Perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network. Categories include emotional, esteem, material, informational, and network support

13

Emotional support

Listening, affirming, empathizing with someone’s feelings

14

Esteem support

Similar to emotional but more directly affirms qualities and skills of a person. Reminding someone of skills they possess to tackle a problem.

15

Material support

Also called tangible support - Any type of financial or material contribution to another

16

Informational support

Providing info that will help someone. I.e explanation of diagnoses

17

Network support

Gives a person a sense of belonging. Physically, accomplished through gestures, group activities or shared experiences

18

Foraging

Seeking out and eating food - driven by biological, psychological, and social influences.
Sensation of hunger controlled by hypothalamus - lateral promotes hunger. Ventromedial responds to cues that we are full

19

Mating system

Organization of a group’s sexual behavior - include monogamy, polygamy (polygyny for males with multiple females, polyandry for females with multiple males) and promiscuity

20

Mate choice

Also called intersexual selection -selection based on attraction

21

Mate bias

How choosy members of a species are

22

Direct benefits

Mate bias provides material advantages, protection or emotional support

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Indirect benefits

Mate bias promotes better survival in offspring

24

Five recognized mechanisms of mate choice

Phenotypic benefits - observable attractive traits related to survival
Sensory bias - development of a trait to meet preexisting preference.
Fisherian or runaway selection - sexually desirable traits not related to survival.
Indicator traits - signify good health and well being.
Genetic compatibility - mate pairs that have complementary genetics

25

Altruism

Helping behavior that costs person doing it

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Empathy-altruism hypothesis

Person helps another when he feels empathy for that person regardless of cost

27

Game theory

Attempts to explain decision making behavior - game is defined by the players. Info and actions available to each at decision points and payoffs associated with outcomes. In biology payoffs refer to fitness

28

Evolutionary stable strategy

ESS - game theorists developed this to say when ESS is developed in a given population in a specific environment natural selection will prevent alternative strategies from arising. ESS is passed down and object of game is becoming more fit than competitors

29

Hawk-dove game

Game theory - three outcomes: hawk vs hawk - one will win and one will lose. Hawk vs dove - dove will lose. Dove vs dove - they will share resources. Dove will attempt to avoid a fight. Based on value of reward and cost of fighting

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Alternatives for competitors

Altruism - donor gives at cost to himself.
Cooperation - both donor and recipient benefit by cooperating.
Spite - both donor and recipient are negatively impacted
Selfishness - donor benefits while recipient is largely negatively impacted

31

Inclusive fitness

In evolutionary psych it is a measure of an organism’s success in the population based on number of offspring, success in supporting offspring, etc

32

Social perception

Also called social cognition - provides tools to make judgments and impressions regarding others.
Three primary components: the perceiver, the target, and the situation

33

Primacy effect

First impressions are more important than secondary impressions in sociology

34

Regency effect

In sociology the most recent info we have about an ind that is most important

35

Reliance on central traits

Inds tend to organize perception of others based on traits and personal characteristics of the target that are most relevant to the perceiver

36

Implicit personality theory

States that there are sets of assumptions people make about how different types of people, their traits and their behaviors are related

37

Halo effect

Cognitive bias in which judgments about a specific aspect of an ind can be affected by one’s overall impression of the ind. general impression affects more specific

38

Just-world hypothesis

Good things happen to good people and bad to bad. Such a world denies possibility of innocent victims

39

Self-serving bias

Also called self-serving attributional bias - refers to the fact that inds will view their own success based on internal factors while viewing failures based on external factors

40

Self enhancement

Focuses on need to maintain self worth and can be done through internal attribution of success and external attribution of failure

41

Attribution theory

Tendency of inds to infer the causes of other people’s behavior

42

Dispositional causes (attribution theory)

Fritz Heider -
Internal causes that relate to the person whose behavior is being considered including his or her beliefs m, attitudes, and personality characteristics

43

Situational causes (attribution theory)

Fritz Heider
External causes that relate to features of the surroundings, such as threats, money, social norms, and peer pressure

44

Consistency cues

The consistent behavior of a person over time. The more regular the more we associate those behaviors with the motives of the person.

45

Consensus cues

Extent to which a person’s behavior differs from others

46

Distinctiveness cues

The extent to which a person engages in similar behavior across a series of scenarios

47

Correspondent inference theory

Focuses on the intentionality of others’ behavior

48

Fundamental attribution error

We are generally biased toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions, especially in negative contexts

49

Attribute substitution

Occurs when inds must make judgments that are complex but instead they substitute a simpler solution or apply a heuristic

50

Stereotypes

Cognitive. Occurs when attitudes and impressions are based on limited and superficial info about a person or group. Content are attributes that people believe define a group. Refer to expectations, impressions, and opinions about the characteristics of members of a group.

51

Stereotype content model

Attempts to classify stereotypes with respect to hypothetical in-group using two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth groups are not in direct competition. Competence are high status in society

52

Paternalistic stereotype

Group is looked down upon as inferior, dismissed or ignored but warmth is high

53

Contemptuous stereotype

Group that is viewed with resentment, annoyance, or anger and looked down upon

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Envious stereotype

Group viewed with jealousy, bitterness or distrust

55

Admiration stereotype

Group viewed with pride or other positive feelings. High warmth and high status

56

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Expectations that lead inds or groups to confirm them

57

Stereotype threat

Concept of people being concerned or anxious about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s social group. Effect based on how highly one identifies with the stereotyped group. Could create self fulfilling prophecy

58

Prejudice

Defined as an irrational positive or negative attitude toward a person, group, or thing, prior to actual experience with the entity

59

Propaganda

Common way by which a large organizations and political groups attempt to create prejudices in others

60

Power

Ability of people or group to achieve their goal despite any obstacles and their ability to control resources

61

Prestige

Level of respect shown to a person by others

62

Class

Socioeconomic status - haves and have nots.
Haves may develop a negative attitude to justify that they have more

63

Ethnocentrism

Refers to the practice of making judgments about other cultures based on the values and beliefs of one’s own culture especially related to language, custom and religion

64

Cultural relativism

Adopted by sociologists to compare and understand other cultures - perception of another culture as different from one’s own but with the recognition that the cultural values, mores, and rules of a culture fit into that culture itself

65

Discrimination

Occurs when prejudicial attitudes cause inds of a particular group to be treated differently from others. This is a behavior. Prejudice is an attitude

66

Individual discrimination

One person discriminating against a particular person or group.
Conscious and obvious

67

Institutional discrimination

An entire institution discriminating against an ind or group. Perpetuated by simply maintaining the status quo