Ch 11 Sociology: Institutions And Theories Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11 Sociology: Institutions And Theories Deck (75)
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1

Macro vs microsociology

Large groups and social structure vs. small groups and the ind

2

Functionalism

Or functional analysis - study of structure and function of each part of society. Early functionalists viewed society as living organism well when all fulfill their functions

3

Function

Refers to beneficial consequences of people’s actions. Help keep society in balance

4

Dysfunctions

Harmful consequences of people’s actions that undermine society’s equilibrium

5

Manifest function

Action intended to help some part of a system

6

Latent function

The unintended positive consequences of manifest functions. Unstated or unrecognized

7

Sick person in functionalism

Deviant - against social norms.
Manifestation of deviance in healthcare and medicine is that the one who’s fallen ill is not only physically sick but now adheres to social role of being sick that disrupts normal order of society

8

Power

In sociology refers to a form of influence over other people

9

Conflict theory

Based on works of Karl Marx. Focuses on how power differentials are created and how these differentials contribute to maintenance of social order.

10

Symbolic interactionism

Study of the ways inds interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures and other symbols. Symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.

11

Social constructionism

Focuses on how inds put together their social reality. Constructs arise from humans communicating and working together to agree on the significance of a concept or principle. Physical or abstract objects

12

Rational choice theory

Focuses on decision making in an ind and attempts to reduce this process to careful consideration of benefits and harms to ind. chooses option with highest benefit to harm ratio

13

Exchange theory

Extension of rational choice theory focusing on interactions in groups. Behavior met with approval will reinforce that behavior and vice verse

14

Feminist theory

Attempts to explain social inequalities that exist on the basis of gender. Focuses on subordination of women through social structures and institutional discrimination

15

Glass ceiling

Phenomenon in which women are promoted less frequently and have more difficulty getting top level admin positions in a company

16

Social institutions

Well established social structures that dictate certain patterns of behavior or relationships and are accepted as a fundamental part of culture. Regulate ind behaviors

17

Family

Influenced by culture, value systems, beliefs, practices, gender, age, race, ethnicity, etc. no fixed definition across cultures

18

Hidden curriculum

In education- transmitting social norms, attitudes, beliefs to students

19

Teacher expectancy

Idea that teachers tend to get what they expect from their students.

20

Religion

Pattern of social activities organized around a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence (sociology definition)

21

Religiosity

How religious one considers himself to be. Includes strength of religious beliefs, engagement in religious practices, and attitudes about religion itself

22

Church

Large, universal religious group that can be divided into multiple coexisting denominations

23

Government and economy

Systematic arrangements of political and capital relationships, activities, and social structures that affect rule making, representation of the ind in society, rights and privileges, division of labor, and production of goods and services

24

Democracy

Allows every citizen a vote through elected representatives

25

Monarchies

Royal ruler may be limited by parliament

26

Dictatorship

Single person holds power

27

Theocracy

Power by religious leaders.

28

Division of labor

Encouraged in capitalistic societies - specific components of a larger task are separated and assigned to skilled and trained inds

29

Sick role

Mid 20th century - those who are sick not responsible for illness but exempt from social responsibility and expected to seek help. Now pts are responsible for health too

30

Beneficence

In medicine - physician has responsibility to act in pt’s best interest