Flashcards in Ch 11 Sociology: Institutions And Theories Deck (75)
Macro vs microsociology
Large groups and social structure vs. small groups and the ind
Or functional analysis - study of structure and function of each part of society. Early functionalists viewed society as living organism well when all fulfill their functions
Refers to beneficial consequences of people’s actions. Help keep society in balance
Harmful consequences of people’s actions that undermine society’s equilibrium
Action intended to help some part of a system
The unintended positive consequences of manifest functions. Unstated or unrecognized
Sick person in functionalism
Deviant - against social norms.
Manifestation of deviance in healthcare and medicine is that the one who’s fallen ill is not only physically sick but now adheres to social role of being sick that disrupts normal order of society
In sociology refers to a form of influence over other people
Based on works of Karl Marx. Focuses on how power differentials are created and how these differentials contribute to maintenance of social order.
Study of the ways inds interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures and other symbols. Symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.
Focuses on how inds put together their social reality. Constructs arise from humans communicating and working together to agree on the significance of a concept or principle. Physical or abstract objects
Rational choice theory
Focuses on decision making in an ind and attempts to reduce this process to careful consideration of benefits and harms to ind. chooses option with highest benefit to harm ratio
Extension of rational choice theory focusing on interactions in groups. Behavior met with approval will reinforce that behavior and vice verse
Attempts to explain social inequalities that exist on the basis of gender. Focuses on subordination of women through social structures and institutional discrimination
Phenomenon in which women are promoted less frequently and have more difficulty getting top level admin positions in a company
Well established social structures that dictate certain patterns of behavior or relationships and are accepted as a fundamental part of culture. Regulate ind behaviors
Influenced by culture, value systems, beliefs, practices, gender, age, race, ethnicity, etc. no fixed definition across cultures
In education- transmitting social norms, attitudes, beliefs to students
Idea that teachers tend to get what they expect from their students.
Pattern of social activities organized around a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence (sociology definition)
How religious one considers himself to be. Includes strength of religious beliefs, engagement in religious practices, and attitudes about religion itself
Large, universal religious group that can be divided into multiple coexisting denominations
Government and economy
Systematic arrangements of political and capital relationships, activities, and social structures that affect rule making, representation of the ind in society, rights and privileges, division of labor, and production of goods and services
Allows every citizen a vote through elected representatives
Royal ruler may be limited by parliament
Single person holds power
Power by religious leaders.
Division of labor
Encouraged in capitalistic societies - specific components of a larger task are separated and assigned to skilled and trained inds
Mid 20th century - those who are sick not responsible for illness but exempt from social responsibility and expected to seek help. Now pts are responsible for health too