Challenges Of An Urbanising World Flashcards Preview

*Edexcel GCSE Geography B* > Challenges Of An Urbanising World > Flashcards

Flashcards in Challenges Of An Urbanising World Deck (72)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is urbanisation?

The general trend of people moving to towns and cities, compared to rural areas.

2

What is suburbanisation?

Increased amounts of people moving to the outskirts of a city - in the residential areas.

3

What is counter-urbanisation?

People moving away from the cities causing population decline in inner-city areas

4

How can cities cope with counter-urbanisation?

Find new technologies to keep up with other cities. E.g: Detroit has been largely abandoned due to the failing car industry

5

What is de-industrialisation?

When industry in a city begins to decline e.g. Detroit

6

What is re-urbanisation?

A place that has a resurgence in people moving there after experiencing counter-urbanisation.

7

What is regeneration?

The redevelopment of older, run-down inner city areas to attract people to live closer. This includes new shopping centres, flats, houses, etc.
E.g: Birmingham

8

How many people lived in urban areas in 1980 v. 2015?

40%
54%

9

What is a Primate city?

A city with importance and influence disproportionately greater than what their size would suggest. It must be at least twice as big or significant than the next largest city in its country/ region.

10

What is a world city?

A city that trades and invests globally.

11

What are the three world city ratings?

- World City
- Alpha +
- Alpha ++

12

Name a world city

Any from:
Mexico City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Madrid, Brussels, Frankfurt, Moscow, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Seoul

13

Name an alpha + city

Any from:
Paris, Milan, Beijing, Shanghai, Hongkong, Tokyo, Singapore and Sydney

14

Name an alpha ++ city

London or New York

14

Define globalisation

Increased connections between cities

16

Define political influence

Influencing the governments and large, powerful businesses of a country

16

Define economic influence

Influencing investment, migration and transport of a city

17

Define growth rate

The rate at which a population increases

18

How is growth rate changing in the mega cities of developing countries?

It is faster and on a larger scale than before

20

What is a mega city?

A very large metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people.

20

Define connectivity

How easy it is to travel/ connect with other places

21

Compare the importance of push and pull factors:

Push factors are more influential as they remove the element of choice instead of just encouraging a person to move.

22

What push factors drove migrants to London? Who were these migrants?

-Lack of job opportunities
-Lack of services
-Lack of entertainment

International migrants increased the population by 14% between 2001 and 2011

24

What pull factors attracted migrants to Chongqing between 2001 and 2014?

-Economic reform led to a demand for labour
-Higher incomes
-Better health, education and entertainment services

25

What is the difference in the push and pull factors for London and Chongqing?

Chongqing factors were only based on in city opportunities whereas London factors were also based on connectivity

26

Name a developing, emerging and developed country (case studys)

Malawi
India
UK

27

What is the employment type of developing, emerging and developed countries?

Developing: Informal economy
Emerging: Secondary/ manufacturing industry
Developed: Tertiary industry

27

What is formal employment?

Guaranteed jobs which are contracted with a set salary and health benefits (e.g. insurance). This means that tax has to be payed on income

29

What is informal employment?

Work with no contracts, insurance, rights or social security. This means no tax has to be payed but there is no employment protection

30

What are the 5 sections in the Burgess land use model?

- CBD (central business district)
- Inner City
- Inner Suburbs
- Outer Suburbs
- Rural-Urban Fringe