The UK's Evolving Human Landscape Flashcards Preview

*Edexcel GCSE Geography B* > The UK's Evolving Human Landscape > Flashcards

Flashcards in The UK's Evolving Human Landscape Deck (77)
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What is an enterprise zone?

A zone that offers companies benefits for locating in them. They are mainly in urban areas.


What do enterprise zones try to reduce?

-Uneven population density


Describe investment in transport infrastructure:

Transport investments link rural areas to England’s core. Rural areas such as Cornwall have narrow roads unlike cities with motorways and dual carriageways.


What do investments in transport infrastructure try to reduce?

-Differences in economic activity. Promotes industry and jobs in poorer rural areas.
-Travel times. This increases business investment.


What are UK government regional development grants?

Grans available to most people in the UK which help advise and pay for the start up of a business. Funds given are small to start with and the business has to raise 5.5x the original amount.


What do UK regional investment grants try to reduce?

-Differences in economic activity. Encourages diversity in rural areas.


What are EU government regional development grants?

European regional development funds promote growth in rural areas by providing funds and skills to local, small, high- tech businesses. Common agricultural policies ensure farmers can earn a living from farming.


What do EU government regional development grants try to reduce?

-Differences in economic activity
-Population density differences
-Age structure differences (attracting young graduates to rural areas)


Name 4 problems faced by rural peripheries?

-Low population density (small skill range)
-Older populations (retirement)
-Large amounts of primary industry (fewer skilled jobs)
-Small-scale settlements (e.g. villages)


Define immigration:

The movement of people into a country


Define emigration:

The movement of people out of a country


Define ethnicity:

The grouping of people according to their ethnic origins or characteristics.


Define cultural diversity:

The variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region.


Define population distribution:

Describes the way that people are located within an area.


Define population change (growth):

The population of an area increases according to the birth and death rates.


Name 5 types of national migration:

-Retirement migration
-Rural to urban migration
-North to south drift
-Urban to urban migration
-Countertop urbanisation


Which area is growing the fastest an which is growing the slowest?

London= fastest at 1% a year
Wales= slowest


How is growth rate distributed nationally?

High growth in the south
Low growth in the north and in Wales


Which areas have the youngest and oldest population?

Youngest= London (25)
Oldest= South West (60)


How much has the UK population changed over the past 50 years?

The population has increased by 10.7 million over the past 50 years.


State 2 reasons why the UK population has increased:

-Net immigration: EU membership and Globalisation
-A rising birth rate: people are having children earlier and to older ages


What are the 3 countries with the highest UK immigration rate?

India= 734 thousand
Poland= 679 thousand
Pakistan= 502 thousand


Outline the history of immigration to the UK:

1950s: Shortage of workers. Immigration from former colonies- Caribbean, India, Bangladesh
1970s: No longer a labour shortage. Immigration under government control so fewer people arrived.
2004: Economic growth and enlargement of EU. Immigrants. From Eastern Europe.
2012-15: People fled from fighting in Syria and Afghanistan to UK cities. 2014: 560,000 immigrants mainly from Poland, China and India.


What age are most international migrants?

80% were 18-34 in 2004


What are the costs and benefits of international migration?

+Safety from conflict
+New skills
+Prevents labour shortages
+Increased cultural diversity
- Racial tension
-Loss of cultural identity
-Increased land prices
-Increased population density


What is FDI?

Foreign direct investment is composed of flows of capital from businesses in one country to another.


What are TNCs?

Large companies that operate in a range of other countries. They link the national economies in different parts of the world.


Assess the costs and benefits of TNCs in the UK:

+Higher rate of technology development
+Increased productivity
-Can lead to over reliance from the UK
-The UK’s economy is affected if there are problems anywhere else in the world


What is globalisation?

The growing importance of international operations for all economic sectors.


What are the 3 key elements of the global economy?

Networks- Links between countries
Flows- Goods and services
Global players- TNCs