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Flashcards in Champagne - General Deck (70):
1

'Departments' of

Champagne 

Aisne

Aube

Haut-Marne

Marne

Seine-et-Marne

 

But the 5 subregions are:
-M d Reims (N v S)
-Valle de Marne (PM) 
-Cote de Blancs
-Cote de Sezanne (Chard)
-Aube

2

Sub-regions of Champagne

Montagne de Reims

Valle de la Marne

Cote de Blancs

Cote de Sezanne

Aube

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3

What are the approved training methods of

Champagne AOP?

Chablis

Cordon du Royat

Guyot
(single -or- double)

Vallée de la Marne
approved for Pinot Meunier only!!!

4

What is the Max Yield & min ABV of

Champagne AOP?

~10,400 kg/ha~ *

~9% min ABV~ **

* Max Yield is actually set each vintage by the CIVC, so it can be variable.

** min potential ABV of base wine.

==========

143 g/l min Must Weight

10 g/l Max RS for base wine

5

Name all the Cremant AOPs

Cremant AOPs are less strict on press yeilds than Champagne:
100L per 150kg -or- 2666L per 4000kg

  • *Loire
  • *Alsace
  • *Bourgogne
  • Bordeaux
  • Die
  • Jura
  • Limoux
  • Savoie (approved in 2014)

 

* These are the only "Cremant" appelations of France with a minimum pressure of 4 bars.
- The rest have 3.5 bars minimum pressure

Other French Sparkling wines that use Traditional Method:

  • Bugey


-Thinking of non-cremant sparkling:

  • Blanquette de Limoux
  • Vouvray 
  • Montlouis sur Loire
  • Saumur
  • Vin de Savoie
  • Seyssel (Savoie)

6

Rose des Riceys AOP

(Rs!)

Still Rosé Only!!

100% Pinot Noir

~10,400 kg/ha~
~10% min ABV~

*released 7/15

This is a Cru Village in the Aube

7

Champagne AOPs that make still wine?

Coteaux Champenois

Rosé des Riceys

8

What is the min Must Weight of

Champagne AOP?

143 g/l min Must Weight

==========

10 g/l Max RS of Base Wine

10,400 kg Max Yeild
(can be ammended every year by CIVC)

9% min ABV

9

What are the allowable grapes of

Champagne AOP?

Chardonnay

Pinot Noir

Pinot Meunier

----------

Pinot Gris

Pinot Vrai
(Pinot Blanc)

Arbane

Petite Meslier

Note:
- Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier are the only red grapes

10

Champagne Dryness

Levels

(old, pre 2010) ~ (new)

----------

Brut Nature
(0-3 g/l) ~ (?????)

Extra Brut
(0-6 g/l)

Brut
(0-15 g/l) ~ (0-12 g/l)

Extra Dry
(12-20 g/l) ~ (12-17 g/l)

Sec
(17-35 g/l) ~ (17-32 g/l)

Demi-Sec
(33-50 g/l) ~ (32-50 g/l)

Doux
(50+ g/l)

11

Brut Nature

old       ~       new
0-3 g/l RS   ~   ????????

12

Extra Brut

0-6 g/l RS

-----

this level did not change

13

Brut

old         ~         new
0-15 g/l RS   ~   0-12 g/l RS

14

Extra Dry

old           ~           new
12-20 g/l RS   ~   12-17 g/l RS

-----

aka: Extra Sec

15

Sec

old           ~           new
17-35 g/l RS   ~   17-32 g/l RS

-----

aka: Dry

16

Demi-Sec

old           ~           new
33-50 g/l RS   ~   32-50 g/l RS

17

Doux

50+ g/l RS

-----

this level did not change

18

Best Varietal of

Valle de la Marne

Pinot Meunier

Buds late and ripens early. This is highly prized in a region where frost is a problem like it is here.

19

Best Varietal of

Cotes de Sezanne

Chardonnay

20

Best Villages of

Cotes de Sezanne

Bet on Grand Villains

=====

Bethon

Villenauxe-la-Grande

21

Best Varietal of

Aube

Pinot Noir

22

Best Villages of

Aube

Les Riceys

{closer to Chablis, geographically}

23

Montagne de Reims divisions

Divided between the south facing, and north facing slopes.

South facing slopes are on the south of the the hilly "Foret de la Montagne de Reims" and include Louvois, Bouzy, and Ambonnay.

North facing slopes are north of the Forest.

The plain beneath (to the north of) the northern slope is too cold for viticulture.

Occassion pockets of warmth.

24

NM

Negociant-Manipulant

Buys grapes or Vins Claire from growers, cooperatives, or other "Houses" (NMs)

25

RM

Recoltant-Manipulant
(Grower-Producer)

In theory they grow 100% of their own grapes.  However, they are permitted to purchase a max of 5% of their total production from other RMs.

Must own 95% own vines

26

CM

Cooperative-Manipulant
(A Co-Op)

A cooperative of growers that makes & sells Champagne under one or more brands that it owns.

27

RC

Recoltant-Cooperateur

A grower that delivers grapes to a cooperative and, in part or full payment, receives back ready made Champagne that they sell under their own name.

Vinified at Co-op, then sells under their own label

28

SR

Societe de Recoltants

A publically registered firm set up by two or more growers who share premises/resources to make and market Champagne under more than one brand.

Usually does make several brands.

29

ND

Negociant-Distributeur

A company that sells Champagne it did not make to others who then retail it.

30

MA

Marque d'Achteur
(basically a private label)

A brand name owned by the purhcaser such as a restaurant, supermarket, or wine merchant.

31

Soils of Champagne

Mainly pourous Belemnite Chalk up to 300m thick

Thin topsoil that includes:
Sand, Lignite, Marl, Loam, Clay, Chalk Rubble

High limestone content which increases acidity.

Soil is from cephalaods eons ago.

Subsoil is Micraster

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32

Pupitres

"A" framed racks used for remuage/riddling

*pioneered by Veuve Clicquot-Ponsardin

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33

Echelles des Crus

Vineyard rating system:

Grand Cru (17): 100%
Premiers Cru (44): 90-99%*
Village Cru: 80-89%

*Only two 1er Cru are 99%:
-Mareuil-sur-Ay  (Valle de la Marne)
-Tauxieres   (Montagne de Reims)

This system is not really in play anymore

34

Champagne

Pressing Limit

102 L per 160 kg of grapes
-or-
2550 L per 4000 kg of grapes

=========

*4000 kg is also known as a 'Marc'

You can have coquards that are 1/2 marc, double marc, etc

==========

This was set in 1992

35

What is a Marc

of grapes?

4000 kg of grapes.

This is the amount the traditional Coquard basket grape presses would hold.

The pressing limit is strictly monitored in Champagne. 
It is set at 102L per 160kg -or- 2550 L per 4000 kg of grapes.

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36

What are the

"Other grapes"

allowed in Champagne?

Pinot Vrai
(Pinot Blanc; a white clone of PN)
(Cedric Bouchard makes wines from this grape)

Pinot Gris

Arbane

Petit Messlier

37

What is

'Les Bleus de Ville'?

A blight on the history of Champagne.

They are the remnants of blue plastic bags that are still noticeable in Champagne's soils.

These blue bags were used to transport inorganic composted materials from Paris to fertilize the soils.

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38

Vin de Cuvée

The first 2050 liters of the 2550 Liters allowable out of 4000kg (marc) of grapes from the coquard press.

This is the primary juice component of Champagne.

=====

The second pressing of the remaining 500 L allowable for Champagne is called the Vin de Taille

=====

The third (required) pressing, called Rebeche is used for distillation

39

Vin de Taille

The second pressing of 500 Liters (out of 2550L) of allowable juice from the 4000kg (marc) of grapes from the traditional coquard press.

This has more tannin and structure.  It is often-times sold off.  Sometimes producers will use a small amount for structure and texture in their Champagne.

=====

The first pressing of 2050L is the main component of Champagne.  It is called Vin de Cuvée.

=====

The third (required) pressing, called Rebeche is used for distillation

40

Rebeche

A third extraction of pressing from the 4000kg of grapes. This is actually required by law.

Can only be 10% Max of total pressing.

The rebeche is used to make distilled spirits. 

=====

*What is the spirit used for (ratafia)?

41

Debourbage

Settling of the pressed juice to allow the final solids to be removed prior to fermentation.

Called debourbage, as bourbes are the solids that must be removed prior to racking. Happens at a cooler temperature.

42

Vins Claire

Fermented Base Wine

43

Liqueur de Tirage

A mixture of:
Base Wine + Yeast + Sugar

This is added to clarified Vins Claire to start the secondary (bottle) fermentation.

- The Methode Ancestrale does not use a Liqueur de Tirage.
Examples are:
-Bugey Cerdon
-Clairette de Die Metehode Dioise Ancetrale
-Gaillac Mousseux

- For the continuous method, Liqueur di Tirage is continuously added - as it is pumped through a series of tanks

44

Prise de Mousse

Name for the secondary (bottle) fermentation in Champagne.

Lasts up to 8 weeks. Yeast is converted to CO2. Alcohol content rises 1.2 to 1.3% .

Wines are stored sur latte during this

45

Bidule

A plastic piece inserted underneath the cap crown in Champagne during the Prise de Mousse.

This is designed to capture the the sediment during remuage.

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46

Sur Latte

The term for storing bottles horizontally during Prise de Mousse.

Allows for more surface area of the yeast cells with the wine, as well as easier extraction of said cells during remuage.

47

Autolysis

The breaking down of the yeast cells into sediment/lees during Prise de Mousse.

48

Pointage

An old practice of shaking the bottle prior to remuage in order to break any yeast cells from the sides of the inside of the bottle.

The newer yeast strains do not need this step as much

49

Gyropalatte

Machine used for remuage in the modern day.

Holds 504 bottles. Created in Spain for Cava.

Takes 8 days to complete the process

Some prestige cuvees still use hand riddling.

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50

Sur Point

The term for storing bottles vertically upside-down prior to degorgement.

51

Degorgement a la Glace

Dipping the neck of the bottle in a freezing solution to turn the sediment/lees into a solid mass for ease of degorgement.

52

Liqueur d'Expedition

Dosage

An addition of a solution of sugar and base wine to give the Champagne its desired sweetness level.

Think "expedition" ready to be done with the process

53

Dosage

The addition of a solution of sugar and base wine (Liqueur d'Expedition) to give the Champagne its desired sweetness level.

54

Muselet

The wire cage at the top of Champagne bottles.

6.5 twists.

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55

Aging Requirements of

NV Champagne

*12 months min on lees before degorgement. (same for Vintage)

*15 months min total aging (including lees aging) before release.

56

Vintage aging requirements for Champagne?

*12 months min on lees before degorgement. (same for NV)

*36 months min total aging (including lees aging) before release.

 

  • only 80% released as Champagne
  • 143 g/l must weight
  • can't start second fermentation till Jan 1
  • PSI of 1 atm of pressure - 14.695

57

Piccolo

Quarter Bottle -1/4 Bottle

187ml

58

Demi

Half Bottle ~1/2 Bottle

375ml

59

Magnum

2 Bottles

1.5L

60

Jeroboam

4 Bottles

3L

61

Rehoboam

6 Bottles

4.5L

*discontinued 1989

62

Methuselah

8 bottles

6L

"The '86 Mets won the World Series"
(8btl - 6L)

63

Salamanzar

12 Bottles

9L

"Sal carries a case"
(1 case is 12btl = 9L)

64

Balthazar

16 Bottles

12L

"At 16, I had Balls!"

65

Nebuchadnezzar

20 Bottles

15L

* Fun fact: David Ortiz chugged Ace of Spades from a Nebuchadnezzar after World Series win.

66

Solomon

(AKA Melchior)

24 Bottles

18L

"Saul carries twice as much as Sal"
(2 cases of wine. a case is 12btl = 9L)

NOTE:
-There are larger sizes than this,
example: Premat

67

All Champagne Bottle sizes

Michael Jackson (Really) Makes
Small Boys Nervous, Seriously

(Just, Remove, My Socks, Before, Nookie, Sweety)

Piccolo
(1/4 btl - 187ml)

Demi
(1/2 btl - 375ml)

Magnum
(2 btls - 1.5L)

Jeraboam
(4 btls - 3L)

*Rehoboam
(6 btls - 4.5L) - ended 1989

Methuselah
(8 btls - 6L)

Salamanazar
(12 btls - 9L)

Balthazar
(16 btls - 12L)

Nebuchadnezzer
(20 btls - 15L)

Soloman
(24 btls - 18L) - *aka Melchior

* Larger sizes, including the Sovereign and Primat, are extraordinarily rare.  Many sources cite the 18 L bottle as a Melchior, as it is called in Bordeaux

68

What amount of Champagne may be

sold as Vintage each year?

80% maximum

69

What bottle sizes must Champagne be made in?

375 ml
(demi)

750 ml

1.5 L
(magnum)

3 L
(jeroboam)

NOTE:
-All other sizes may be transferred into bottle.
-In NV wines up to 20% of 375 ml bottles may be transferred.)

70

Rules for

Special Club Champagne

Established 1971 - aka "Club Tresors"

  • RM producers Only!
     
  • Viticulture, Vinification, and Bottling must take place on the estate.
     
  • Members must uphold the Club Charter
     
  • Special Club bottling must be the "Prestige Cuvee"
     
  • "Club" will declare a vintage. Producers decide whether they wish to bottle a vintage from that year.  
     
  • Producers cannot bottle a Special Club from a non "Club" chosen vintage.
     
  • All Special Club base wines and finished wines are subject to a tasting panel.
     
  • All must have identical bottles and labels.
     

Important Members:
- Hebrart, Gimmonet, Bara, Lasalle, Gaston Chiquet

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