Flashcards in Chap 10: The Industrial Revolution Deck (9):
5 New inventions in the textile industry and who invented them
Flying shuttle-John Kay
Spinning Jenny-James Hargreaves
Water Frame - Richard Arkwright
Spinning Mule- Samuel Crompton
Power loom- Edward Cartwright
Two disadvantages of the three-field-system
-one field left fallow, wasted between strips, wasted at the end when oxen turned
-weeds spread between strips, animals could wander, animals' diseases spread
Two advantages of the four field system
1.Increase in food supply
-Turnips and grass restored nutrients in soil, no fields left fallow
2.Fresh meat available all year round
-Cattle not killed each winter, fed on turnips and hay
What was enclosure?
Each tenants strips of arable land and their portion of the commons were brought together into a single farm. Fences and hedges were used to enclose the farm.
5 advantages of enclosure
-Reduced spread of weeds and disease
-Increase in food supply and the number of cattle
-Farmers could use new methods of farming
-More food produced, tenants and land owners better off
-Landlords could charge higher rent
2 Disadvantage of enclosure and what happened then?
-Smaller farmers couldn't afford to plant hedges and dig drains or pay higher rent,Sold their farms and went to the cities to work
Laborers lost grazing rights on the commons, new machines meant not needed, moved to industrial town to work (factories)
Who invented and what was selective breeding?
More cattle, but all were the same size. Robert Bakewell bred the largest ewe and the strongest ram, repeated year after year to produce more meet. Size of horse and cattle grew with selective breeding.
3 new agricultural machines
In 1701 Jethro Tull invented the seed drill, it made a furrow in the soil, dropped the seed in and covered it with soil.
He also invented the horse drawn hoe which removed weeds from between crops
Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper which cut corn.