Flashcards in Chap 9-Part II:The French Revolution Deck (16):
Causes of the French Revolution
-Enlightenment writers eg.Voltaire and Rousseau
-Cost of aiding the US
-Nobles called estates general and each estate got 1 say, even 3rd
-number of bad harvests in late 1780s and shortage of food in 3rd
-Clergy resisted taxes and forced Louis to borrow more money
-3rd estate angry (93% of pop.) and hated the king
3 important changes introduced by the National Assembly
-Abolished 3 estates, no longer subjects of the King
- Introduced declaration of the rights of man and of the citiz.
-introduced the slogan: 'Liberty,equality,fraternity'. Liberty: free people from rule of King. Equality:equal treatment of all. Fraternity: cooperation between the people.
How was the power of the church was reduced?
In 1790, the National Assembly passed the 'civil constitution of the clergy'.
Why was the power of the church was reduced?
Most revolutionaries wanted to reduce the power of the church because it supported the King and the nobles
What happened when the power of the church was reduced.
The church was brought under power of the government, monasteries were closed and priests had to take an oath to support the revolution.
What was the flight to Varenne ?
Louis was a religious man and he didn't like these religious changes, so he left for Belgium with his family. It was ruled by an Austrian emperor, Marie-Antoinette's brother, who was also Catholic. On the night of June 20th 1791, they were captured in Varenne , near the border, and brought back to France under guard .
How did France become a republic?
The flight to Varenne showed that King Louis was an enemy of the revolution. France went to war with most of Europe. Their Kings and Queens didn't want France to become a republic as it may influence their country. Revolutionaries stormed the Tuileries palace and killed anyone suspected of being an enemy. They removed Louis from the throne.
Why was Louis XVI executed?
The National Convention tried him for treason and he was found guilty. Robespierre was one who voted for his execution, even though he had been against the death penalty before.
When and how were Louis and Marie-Antoinette executed?
On January 21 1973, Louis was executed by the guilotene . In October of that year, Marie-Antoinette met the same fate.
Groups against the revolution
-supporters of the king
-Religious rebels in the Vendée region
-Austrian army invading France
Explain the committee of public safety
A committee of public safety was set up by Robespierre and his supporters. He believed that terror was needed to defeat the enemies of the revolution. Anyone suspected of disloyalty to the revolution was arrested. This was called the reign of terror.
What was the law of suspects?
In September 1793, a law of suspects was passed which set up a revolutionary tribunal (a court). This tried anyone suspected of being an enemy of the revolution.
How many people were executed during the reign of terror
Who were the sans-culottes and what did Robespierre do?
The sans-culottes were the poor people of Paris who refused to wear short trousers. Robespierre lowered the price of bread to keep them happy.
Why did Robespierre seize control?
Because he was executing people left, right and center and his followers and members of the committees which he led were afraid that they would be next.