Chapter 11: Political Development In 20th Century Ireland Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Political Development In 20th Century Ireland Deck (85):
1

What was the act of union?

An act passed in 1801 stating that Ireland was a part of the United Kingdom and controlled by the government in Westminster, there were 105 Irish MPs in Westminster

2

Nationalist

The majority of Catholics were nationalists. They wanted home-rule.they were represented by the home-rule party the leader was John Redmond they had 80 MPs in Westminster

3

Home rule

This meant having a parliament in Dublin for local affairs. Dublin would be in charge of health and education. Westminster would be in charge of trade and foreign affairs

4

Republicans

These were a small minority of nationalists. They wanted a republic and Ireland fully independent

5

Irish Republican brotherhood – IRB

Days were in secret society of extreme nationalists they wanted independence and they would use violence. By 1910 they had little support and there was no hope of a rebellion

6

Unionists

Most Protestants were unionist they were a small minority in the country except in north-east Ulster they didn't want home rule . They were led by Edward Carson And James Craig

7

Home Rule, Rome Rule

Your nest believed that they would be discriminated against in catholic majority government

8

ITGWU

Irish transport and General workers union, fought for better wages and working conditions

9

Who set up the IGTWU?

Jim Larkin

10

Who were the employers Ledbury and what did they say?

The employers were led by William Martin Murphy. They gave the workers an ultimatum, leave the union or lose their jobs

11

What does the workers do after they were given an ultimatum?

They went on strike

12

What did the employers do when the workers went on strike?

They look at the workers out of work for five months

13

What Organization was later set up and by who?

James Connolly set up the Irish citizen Army to defend workers

14

What happened after five months?

The workers left the union and went back to work

15

What was the act of union?

An act passed in 1801 stating that Ireland was a part of the United Kingdom and controlled by the government in Westminster, there were 105 Irish MPs in Westminster

16

Nationalist

The majority of Catholics were nationalists. They wanted home-rule.they were represented by the home-rule party the leader was John Redmond they had 80 MPs in Westminster

17

Home rule

This meant having a parliament in Dublin for local affairs. Dublin would be in charge of health and education. Westminster would be in charge of trade and foreign affairs

18

Republicans

These were a small minority of nationalists. They wanted a republic and Ireland fully independent

19

Irish Republican brotherhood – IRB

Days were in secret society of extreme nationalists they wanted independence and they would use violence. By 1910 they had little support and there was no hope of a rebellion

20

Unionists

Most Protestants were unionist they were a small minority in the country except in north-east Ulster they didn't want home rule . They were led by Edward Carson And James Craig

21

Home Rule, Rome Rule

Your nest believed that they would be discriminated against in catholic majority government

22

ITGWU

Irish transport and General workers union, fought for better wages and working conditions

23

Who set up the IGTWU?

Jim Larkin

24

Who were the employers Ledbury and what did they say?

The employers were led by William Martin Murphy. They gave the workers an ultimatum, leave the union or lose their jobs

25

What does the workers do after they were given an ultimatum?

They went on strike

26

What did the employers do when the workers went on strike?

They look at the workers out of work for five months

27

What Organization was later set up and by who?

James Connolly set up the Irish citizen Army to defend workers

28

What happened after five months of strike?

The workers left the union and went back to work

29

Who were the cultural nationalists?

A group who wanted a government in Ireland based on the fact that it's culture was completely different to England's

30

Describe the GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association )

Set up in 1884 by Michael Cusack in Thurles, to increase numbers playing football, draw up rules and organise competitions

31

Explain the Gaelic league

Set up in 1893 by Eoin mc Neill and Douglas Hyde to stop the decline in the Irish Language . Set up Claidheamh Solais (Irish newspaper), teachers and encouraged Irish dance and music

32

During the home rule crisis in 1912 to 1914 who were the two major parties in Westminster from Ireland? Explain them briefly

Liberal party:Led by Herberth Asquith (prime minister in 1910) House of Commons.
House of Lords, mostly Conservatives, Tories, led by Andrew Bonar Law. Support unionists, against home rule.

33

What happened with the budget during the home rule crisis

Liberals wanted to race tax on the rich, vetoed by the house of lords

34

What happened with the general Election during the home rule crisis

It was called by Askwith, neither party gets clear majority, liberals get support from home rule party, and in return flight for home-rule

35

What was the parliament act of 1911

It removed the power of Conservatives, Bill can only be vetoed twice, home rule should become law in 1914

36

What was the Unionist reaction to the prospect of home-rule

They held protests and demonstrations,
Under Half 1 million men and women signed a petition called the solemn league and covenant
Ulster volunteer Force, UVF, armed group willing to defend the union with Britain using violence.guns and weapons brought in through Laurne, County Antrim.

37

What was the nationalist reaction to homerule?

Delighted about home-rule to be introduced, Irish volunteers like Eoin MacNeill received guns and weapons from Howth

38

What was the partition

Redmond agreed to give a four counties to the unionists
Carson wanted six counties

39

What happened with world War one relating to home rule

Britain declared war in 1914 and decided to postpone home rule.both Redmond and person urged soldiers to join army.

40

What was the split in the Irish volunteers before the Easter rising

Redmond encourage them to join the British Army 170,000 did so, they were the National volunteers.
11,000 remained in Ireland to project home-rule and ensure it was introduced after the war these were the Irish volunteers.
IRB Infiltrated Irish volunteers and took up leading positions.

41

How were the Irish volunteers involved in the rising

They were the main people involved they were who were against the British. They wanted them out of Ireland

42

How were the Irish citizen army involved in the rising

Another group of men with the same beliefs as the volunteers their leader was James Connolly

43

What happened with the 7 men

Seven main leaders involved in the rising joined together to form a secret rebellion against the British in Dublin

44

Padraig Pearce

Born in 1879.supported Irish culture. joined Irish volunteers and IRB .Poet and writer, school teacher and barrister

45

Thomas Clarke

Born on the Isle of Wight he was 57 the oldest leader, owned and a small shop on Parnell Street, Irish volunteer meeting is held there in secret

46

James Connolly

Born in Scotland 1868, leader of Irish citizen army, prominent figure in the trade union movement

47

Thomas McDonough

Born in Tipperary 1878

48

Sean Mac Diarmuide

Born in Leitrim in 1883

49

Eamonn ceannt

Born in Galway in 1881

50

Joseph Mary Plunkett

Born in Dublin 1887

51

What happened with Roger Casement

He was sent to Germany on the aud to get arms ship sinks no guns

52

Who was the rise in the lead by

The military council made up of the volunteers the Irish citizen army and other leaders

53

What happened with McNeilland the rebellion

The Irish Republican brotherhood wanted support and forged the castle document which day did that Britain was going to execute volunteer leaders McNeill found out it was forged and tried to cancel the rebellion and put it in the news

54

What happened on Easter Monday

The rising was carried out on Easter Monday on April 24th, Key buildings seized, GPO, forecourts, Bollands mill and the College of surgeons, failed to take Dublin Castle (HQ)

55

Proclamation

Pearce read proclamation outside the GPO, signed by ceannt, McDonough, Mcdiarmuide, Pearce, Clark, Connelly, Plunkett

56

Helga

12,000 British men fighting by end, gunship the Helga arrived on Tuesday

57

Sunday

Rebels surrendered, 64 dead, 120 winded, 132 British troops killed, 300 civilians killed and over 2000 wounded

58

How many arrested et cetera

3000 people were arrested and 90 sentenced to death including 14 leaders.people imprisoned and sent to internment camps

59

Effects on city

Shelling destroyed nearly all of the GPO.the rising created master struck shins in the rest of the city and people couldn't go to work and couldn't get paid

60

Opinion of people immediately after

People became really angry at rebels because they had calls all of this destruction

61

Change of public opinion

Imprisonments and the fact that the British wanted to introduce conscription into Ireland change public opinion

62

British and public opinion change

The British soon recognised the change in public opinion and start their plan for conscription and the executing but 2000 sent to internment camps became Republicans with a lot of the others, a lot of support for the party

63

Sinn Fein

Sinn Fein was set up by author Griffith in 1905.he wanted to achieve full independence, a republic, for Ireland, through peaceful means.in 1917 Eamonn Devalera took over the leadership of the party.Sinn Feins aims were to set up a republic in Ireland and set up a parliament in Dublin called the Dail

64

Increased support for Sinn Fein after 1916

The British Romley dubbed the rising, the Sinn Fein rebellion, after the executions people Sympathised with the party.Sinn Fein strongly opposed the plan to introduce conscription to Ireland. Griffiths and Devalera were arrested for no apparent reason and Sinn Fein 4 by elections

65

Results of by Elections for Sinn Fein

East Claire, Devalera
North Ross Common, count Plunkett
South Longford, Joe McGinnis
Kilkenny city, WT Cosgrave, in prison at time

66

1918 general Election

Election called after World War I is over in November, in Ireland there was a landslide victory for Sinn Fein.
Sinn Fein won 73 seats, home rule party 6, unionist party 26
Sinn Fein MPs do not take seats in House of Commons

67

Start of Irish War of Independence

In January 1919, the dáil met in mansion house, 27 TD's present , The rest were in Westminster.
The war began that day in solo head bag in Tipperary when to British were killed by volunteers led by Dan Breen

68

Squad

The squad were hand picked assassins from the IRA By Collins and killed British spies called Gmail

69

Collins spies

Collins was a director of intelligence in the IRA and he had networks of spies throughout the country in jobs like railwaymen and office Klerk

70

Flying columns

IRA formed flying columns which were full time Volunteers around 20 members to move around helping I ambushes

71

Ira and ric

The IRA the talent RIC barracks, RIC retreated to towns IRA got weapons and raided mail to see plans and destroy communications and networks e.g. bridges roads , planned and bushes on RIC

72

B an Ts

Black and tans sent to Ireland in spring 1920.British soldiers to help RIC

73

After B and Ts

Ex army officers later Sent, both groups unpopular because of ruthlessness, increase support for IRA among the ordinary people

74

Increasing violence in 1920

IRA i'm bushes lead to retaliation from black and tans and auxiliaries.
Towns such as Balbriggan, tuam and Mallow were destroyed with houses burned, shops looted and prisoners murdered.
They also short innocent people on the streets and this led to increased support for Sinn Fein and IRA

75

March 1920

2 RIC Megan murdered Tomás MacCurtain, (The Lord Mayor of cork and local IRA commander), in front of his family.
His successor Terence Mike Sweeney was arrested, he demanded to be treated as a prisoner of war.when this was refused, he went on a hunger strike and died 73 days later in Brixton prison

76

November 1920

18-year-old Kevin Barry was arrested for his part in an ambush that cool with a 17-year-old British soldier he was Hanged

77

Bloody Sunday 21st of November

In the morning Colin scored killed 14 of the Cairo gang, the new British spies, some on front of families.
In the afternoon British heavily armed troops surrounded Croke Park and fired into crowd killing 12 people.
That night three men that were captured The day before were shot in Dublin Castle to were IRA men, 1 innocent.

78

End of 1920

20 November Cork volunteers ambushed an auxiliary patrol at Kilmichael near maroon
On 11 December there was an IRH on bush near Cork city.that night black and tans and auxiliaries poured into the city and set fire to it

79

1921

1921 the tax and retaliations made life miserable in Ireland
Between January and July 1921 about 300 of the British forces and 700 civilians (including IRA men) were killed
In May the IRA burnt customhouse to the ground, they lost 80 men and arms were taken from them

80

The truce

On 11 July 1921 A truce was agreed upon
People in Britain were embarrassed by behaviour
Pressure was put on government to end war
The IRA Was short of arms and members

81

The Anglo Irish treaty

11th of July 1921 truce called between Irish and British.
In October Irish delegation (Grifith, Collins, Robert Barton, Erskin Childers, George Gavin Duffy and Eamonn Duggan went to London to agree on treaty.
British delegation: Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, lord Birkenhead and Austen chambers

82

To arguments for the treaty

Gave more independence in homerule and it was the best deal available, the IRA would be a bit more

83

Two against the Treaty

Didn't give Ireland republic that IRA fought for and republicans could not swear loyalty to King

84

Two terms of the Treaty

Ireland would be called Irish free State
Kings representative was the Governor General

85

Results on the treaty

The vote was held on January 7, 1922
64 TDs voted for treaty
57 TDs against the Treaty
Those against treaty left Dáil and were led by Devalera, Griffith replaced him as a present