Flashcards in Chap 5 review urinalysis Deck (74):
Reagents strips are commonly called?
Reagent strips should be stored at?
Dry dark cool place
Tests should be ran at what temp?
pH helps in identification in what?
Urine is normally acid, but is alkaline when?
What is the range for pH for urine?
4.0 - 8.0
VALUES ABOVE 8.0 ARE CAUSED BY what?
IMPROPER STORAGE OF SPECIMEN (BACTERIA CONVERT UREA TO AMMONIA)
In pH the range 4.0 to 6.0 is what?
In pH the range 6.0 to 9.0 is what?
Protein tests detects what protein?
Protein test does not detect what proteins?
Bence jones protein in multiple myeloma or any other protein besides albumin
What do you detect bence jones proteins with?
SULFOSALICYLIC ACID (SSA)
Methodology for measuring protein?
Protein Error of indicators
What is the error of indicators used to really measure but protein will also show up on?
In the error of indicators test for protein, what is the pH held at
What is the method of measuring glucose?
What symptom does the glucose oxidase test detect?
What is the renal threshold for glucose?
GLUCOSE OXIDASE COMBINES WITH ROOM AIR TO PRODUCE what?
PEROXIDE is CONVERTED BY PEROXIDASE ENZYME TO CHANGE what?
How does the clinitest/Benedict's test work?
REDUCES CUPRIC SULFATE TO CUPROUS OXIDE
Clinitest/Benedict's test to positive to what?
All reducing sugars
Clinitest/Benedict's test detect what disease with negative dipstick?
GALACTOSEMIA IN CHILDREN
What are the reducing sugars?
GALACTOSE, GLUCOSE, MALTOSE, FRUCTOSE, LACTOSE
What sugar is negative in the clinitest/Benedict's test?
Sucrose (table sugar)
Ketones are positive in urine from what?
STARVATION, VOMITING, ANOREXIA, DIABETES MELLITUS, MALABSORPTION
KETONURIA IN DIABETICS INDICATES?
NEED TO REGULATE INSULIN
What are the three ketones?
1) ACETOACETIC ACID
3) BETA HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID
DIPSTICK DETECTS what ketones?
ACETOACETIC ACID BUT NOT ACETONE UNLESS GLYCINE IS ADDED
What has to be added to detect acetone on the dipstick for ketones?
What ketone is the no test for?
BETA HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID
What is the confirmatory test for ketones?
What changes color in the presence of ACETOACETIC ACID? And to what color?
PSEUDOPEROXIDASE is used for what?
Detects both hematuria and hemoglobinuriaon
What does hematuria look like in urine?
What does hemoglobinuria look like in urine?
What does myoglobinuria look like in urine?
When is positive blood in urine always significant?
What causes myoglobin in urine?
CRUSHING INJURIES, CONVULSIONS, MUSCLE WASTING DISEASES, ETC
What hemoglobin act like in the pseudoperoxidase test?
What interferes with pseudoperoxidase?
What is bilirubin positive in?
What is azodye?
What is the test for bilirubin?
What is the confirmatory test for bilirubin?
What interferes with bilirubin being tested?
What is the normal amount of urobilinogen?
Small amount (0.2 to 4.0)
What it is increased along with bilirubin in what?
LIVER DISEASE AND HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
Urobilinogen is negative in
Bile duct obstruction
What test is used for testing urobilinogen?
What is the color change for urobilinogen is what colors?
Light to dark pink
Urobilinogen can be falsely positive because of?
What is the confirmatory test of urobilinogen?
Watson-schwartz reaction using chloroform extraction
What type of bacteria HAVE NITRATE REDUCTASE ENZYME THAT CONVERTS NITRATE TO NITRITE?
Nitrite is an INDICATOR OF BACTERIAL INFECTION WHEN ACCOMPANIED BY what?
How long does nitrite take
What interferes with nitrite?
DIAZONIUM SALT CHANGES COLOR IN PRESENCE OF NITRITE and is called what?
What cause a positive reaction for leukocytes?
ESTERASE (ENZYME) FROM GRANULES
What CAN DETECT WBC’S EVEN WHEN THEY CANNOT BE SEEN ON MICROSCOPE?
What CAN HAVE POSITIVE LEUK ESTERASE WITHOUT NITRITE?
YEAST, NON-NITRATE REDUCING ORGANISMS, TRICHOMONAS
What is IS CLEAVED BY ESTERASE?
What CONVERTS DIAZO SALT TO PURPLE AZODYE?
What is the MEASURE OF DENSITY OF URINE AND ROUGH MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATING ABILITY OF TUBULES
Specific gravity is effected by what?
BOTH NUMBER AND SIZE OF PARTICLES IN SOLUTION
RELEASE OF WHAT LOWERS THE PH AND CHANGES BROMTHYMOL BLUE THROUGH SHADES OF GREEN TO YELLOW
What is the down fall of using hydrometer for specific gravity?
HIGH VOLUME REQUIRED, MUST CORRECT FOR TEMP
Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) interferes with what tests?
Non pathological turbidity is caused by?
AMORPHOUS URATES OR PHOSPHATES OR CARBONATES, MUCUS, EPITHELIAL CELLS, ETC
Pathological turbidity is caused by?
RBC’S, WBC’S, BACTERIA, YEAST, CRYSTALS, ETC
Three ways to measure turbidity?
DOUBLE INDICATOR SYSTEM uses what colors?
Methyl red and bromthmyol blue
GLUCOSE OXIDASE REACTS WITH GLUCOSE TO PRODUCE what?
GLUCONIC ACID AND PEROXIDE