Chap 5 review urinalysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 5 review urinalysis Deck (74):
0

Reagents strips are commonly called?

Dipsticks

1

Reagent strips should be stored at?

Room temp
Dry dark cool place

2

Tests should be ran at what temp?

Room temp

3

pH helps in identification in what?

Crystals

4

Urine is normally acid, but is alkaline when?

After meals
Alkaline tide

5

What is the range for pH for urine?

4.0 - 8.0

6

VALUES ABOVE 8.0 ARE CAUSED BY what?

IMPROPER STORAGE OF SPECIMEN (BACTERIA CONVERT UREA TO AMMONIA)

7

In pH the range 4.0 to 6.0 is what?

Methyl red

8

In pH the range 6.0 to 9.0 is what?

BROMTHYMOL BLUE

9

Protein tests detects what protein?

Albumin

10

Protein test does not detect what proteins?

Bence jones protein in multiple myeloma or any other protein besides albumin

11

What do you detect bence jones proteins with?

SULFOSALICYLIC ACID (SSA)

12

Methodology for measuring protein?

Protein Error of indicators

13

What is the error of indicators used to really measure but protein will also show up on?

pH

14

In the error of indicators test for protein, what is the pH held at

3.0

15

What is the method of measuring glucose?

Glucose oxidase

16

What symptom does the glucose oxidase test detect?

Hyperglycemia

17

What is the renal threshold for glucose?

160-180

18

GLUCOSE OXIDASE COMBINES WITH ROOM AIR TO PRODUCE what?

Peroxide

19

PEROXIDE is CONVERTED BY PEROXIDASE ENZYME TO CHANGE what?

Chromogen color

20

How does the clinitest/Benedict's test work?

REDUCES CUPRIC SULFATE TO CUPROUS OXIDE

21

Clinitest/Benedict's test to positive to what?

All reducing sugars

22

Clinitest/Benedict's test detect what disease with negative dipstick?

GALACTOSEMIA IN CHILDREN

23

What are the reducing sugars?

GALACTOSE, GLUCOSE, MALTOSE, FRUCTOSE, LACTOSE

24

What sugar is negative in the clinitest/Benedict's test?

Sucrose (table sugar)

25

Ketones are positive in urine from what?

STARVATION, VOMITING, ANOREXIA, DIABETES MELLITUS, MALABSORPTION

26

KETONURIA IN DIABETICS INDICATES?

NEED TO REGULATE INSULIN

27

What are the three ketones?

1) ACETOACETIC ACID
2) ACETONE
3) BETA HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID

28

DIPSTICK DETECTS what ketones?

ACETOACETIC ACID BUT NOT ACETONE UNLESS GLYCINE IS ADDED

29

What has to be added to detect acetone on the dipstick for ketones?

Glycine

30

What ketone is the no test for?

BETA HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID

31

What is the confirmatory test for ketones?

Acetest tablet

32

What changes color in the presence of ACETOACETIC ACID? And to what color?

Sodium nitroprusside
Purple

33

PSEUDOPEROXIDASE is used for what?

Blood
Detects both hematuria and hemoglobinuriaon

34

What does hematuria look like in urine?

Cloudy

35

What does hemoglobinuria look like in urine?

Clear

36

What does myoglobinuria look like in urine?

Red-brown urine

37

When is positive blood in urine always significant?

In males

38

What causes myoglobin in urine?

CRUSHING INJURIES, CONVULSIONS, MUSCLE WASTING DISEASES, ETC

39

What hemoglobin act like in the pseudoperoxidase test?

Per oxidase

40

What interferes with pseudoperoxidase?

Ascorbic acid

41

What is bilirubin positive in?

Hemolytic anemia
Liver disease

42

What is azodye?

Colored compound

43

What is the test for bilirubin?

Diazo reagent

44

What is the confirmatory test for bilirubin?

Ictotest tablet

45

What interferes with bilirubin being tested?

Pyridium

46

What is the normal amount of urobilinogen?

Small amount (0.2 to 4.0)

47

What it is increased along with bilirubin in what?

LIVER DISEASE AND HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS

48

Urobilinogen is negative in

Bile duct obstruction

49

What test is used for testing urobilinogen?

Ehrlich's reagent
PARADIMETHYLAMINOBENZALDEHYDE

50

What is the color change for urobilinogen is what colors?

Light to dark pink

51

Urobilinogen can be falsely positive because of?

Porphryins

52

What is the confirmatory test of urobilinogen?

Watson-schwartz reaction using chloroform extraction

53

What type of bacteria HAVE NITRATE REDUCTASE ENZYME THAT CONVERTS NITRATE TO NITRITE?

Gram negative

54

Nitrite is an INDICATOR OF BACTERIAL INFECTION WHEN ACCOMPANIED BY what?

WBC

55

How long does nitrite take

4 hrs

56

What interferes with nitrite?

ascorbic acid

57

DIAZONIUM SALT CHANGES COLOR IN PRESENCE OF NITRITE and is called what?

(GREISS REACTION)

58

What cause a positive reaction for leukocytes?

ESTERASE (ENZYME) FROM GRANULES

59

What CAN DETECT WBC’S EVEN WHEN THEY CANNOT BE SEEN ON MICROSCOPE?

Leukocyte esterase

60

What CAN HAVE POSITIVE LEUK ESTERASE WITHOUT NITRITE?

YEAST, NON-NITRATE REDUCING ORGANISMS, TRICHOMONAS

61

What is IS CLEAVED BY ESTERASE?

INDOXYLCARBONIC ACID

62

What CONVERTS DIAZO SALT TO PURPLE AZODYE?

Indoxyl

63

What is the MEASURE OF DENSITY OF URINE AND ROUGH MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATING ABILITY OF TUBULES

Specific gravity

64

Specific gravity is effected by what?

BOTH NUMBER AND SIZE OF PARTICLES IN SOLUTION

65

RELEASE OF WHAT LOWERS THE PH AND CHANGES BROMTHYMOL BLUE THROUGH SHADES OF GREEN TO YELLOW

HYDROGEN IONS

66

What is the down fall of using hydrometer for specific gravity?

HIGH VOLUME REQUIRED, MUST CORRECT FOR TEMP

67

Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) interferes with what tests?

1) BLOOD
2) BILIRUBIN
3) NITRITE
4) GLUCOSE

68

Non pathological turbidity is caused by?

AMORPHOUS URATES OR PHOSPHATES OR CARBONATES, MUCUS, EPITHELIAL CELLS, ETC

69

Pathological turbidity is caused by?

RBC’S, WBC’S, BACTERIA, YEAST, CRYSTALS, ETC

70

Three ways to measure turbidity?

1) DIPSTICK
2) URINOMETER
3) REFRACTOMETER

71

DOUBLE INDICATOR SYSTEM uses what colors?

Methyl red and bromthmyol blue

72

GLUCOSE OXIDASE REACTS WITH GLUCOSE TO PRODUCE what?

GLUCONIC ACID AND PEROXIDE

73

ELEVATED BILIRUBIN LEVELS IN THE PLASMA AND URINE FROM what?

1) LIVER DISEASES (HEPATITIS, CIRRHOSIS, LIVER CANCER, ETC.)
2) BILE DUCT OBSTRUCTION
3) HEMOLYTIC DISEASES