Urinalysis Test 11/5/13 Flashcards Preview

MLT Hematology, Chemistry, Phlebotomy, Micro > Urinalysis Test 11/5/13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinalysis Test 11/5/13 Deck (71):
1

diamond and barrel shaped forms 

Uric acid crystal

2

diamond" shaped form

uric acid crystal

3

This image contains uric acid in both diamond and rosette forms.

uric acid crystals

4

"rosette" formation

uric acid crystals

5

 dihydrate octahedral or "envelope" form

calcium oxalate

6

octahedral (envelope), ovoid, and dumbbell

calcium oxalate

7

 ovoid form

calcium oxalate

8

monohydrate form

calcium oxalate

9

colorless six sided prisms, needles or rhombic plates. 

hippuric acid

10

prism form

hippuric acid

11

large flat-shaped plates or wedge-shaped prisms. The prisms often appear
in rosettes

calcium phospate crystals

12

may appear singly or in rosettes as illustrated here. Single crystals are usually flat on one end and pointed on the other

calcium phosphate crystals

13

in this image are characteristic examples of single prisms. Single prisms
are usually blunt on one end and pointed on the other end. 

calcuim phosphate crystals

14

may also appear as clear flat plates as shown here

Monohydrate calcium phosphate crystals 

15

typically appear in a "coffin-lid" form

Triple phosphate crystals

16

here is the typical "coffin lid" form

Triple phosphate crystals

17

Triple phosphate crystals

18

seen as granules or dumbbells

Calcium carbonate crystals 

19

may be found in large aggregates as shown here or in a single dumbbell form

Calcium carbonate crystals 

20

The dumbbell forms  may occur in various sizes. The larger ones can be confused with the dumbbell form of calcium oxalate. The smaller ones are often mistaken for amorphous phosphates. 

calcium carbonate crystals

21

demonstrate the spiny projections 

Ammonium biurate crystals 

22

This image also illustrates the "thorn apple" form and brown color

Ammonium biurate crystals 

23

are yellowish-brown and can be seen in a "thorn apple" shape (round with thorny projections) or in spherical form. 

Ammonium biurate crystals 

24

may also appear in spherical forms

ammonuim biurate crystals

25

appear as yellow-brown needles or granules. They are frequently attached to the surface of cells

bilirubin crystals

26

frequently seen adhering to the surface of cells

bilirubin crystals

27

This image illustrates the characteristic yellow color usually appear as small needles in clumps as shown here. 

bilirubin crystals

28

clear, flat plates with notched corners

cholesterol crystals

29

shows the characteristic notched corners. 

cholesterol crystals

30

colorless, thin, hexagonal plates   exhibit slight or no birefringence and are not visible when viewed with polarized light

cystine crystals

31

typically have six sides and may exhibit the cracked appearance shown here

cystine crystals

32

often appear on top of one another.  are not normally seen with polarized light. 

cystine crystals

33

 yellow-brown spheroids with concentric rings around the outer edge and radial striations in the center. 

leucine crystals

34

This image demonstrates the concentric outer rings and central striations of 

leucine crystals

35

shows the characteristic brown color. This image is stained with bilirubin present in the
urine specimen

leucine crystal

36

colorless to yellow-brown single needles. They may also be seen as sheaves or rosettes. 

tyrosine  crystals

37

very fine needles with pointed ends.

tyrosine crystals

38

 may appear in sheaves or rosettes

tyrosine crystals

39

often appear in sheaves of small needles as shown in this example

Sulfonamides crystals 

40

may also appear as spheres. In this form, they can sometimes be confused with leucine crystals. 

Sulfonamides crystals 

41

can assume a variety of shapes. Note the small single needles, as well as sheaves, seen in this example. 

Sulfonamides crystals 

42

 usually appear as flat needles or sheaves accompanied by round globules but are variable in form

Radiopaque dye crystals 

43

flat needles, sheaves of small needles or as spheroids. They often appear brown in color

Sulfonamides crystals 

44

are seen as long, thin needles

Acyclovir crystals 

45

long needles and are usually arranged in bunches. The bunches of needles may be arranged in sheaves or columns. 

Indinavir crystals 

46

may be either rods or cocci and can be best visualized on high power

bacteria

47

may be seen in budding or non-budding forms and may show pseudohyphae formation

Yeast

48

yeast

49

 may also form pseudohyphae, as
shown here. 

yeast

50

The flagellae

trichomonas

51

The two cells with obvious flagellae

Trichomonas

52

an oval head and long tail usually seen motile in urine

sperm

53

may be present
in the urine as contaminants from clothing or fecal material

fibers

54

highly refractile, and usually appear as a dark outer ring with a clear center. They may be large
or small. 

air bubble

55

crystals frequently have a characteristic "greenish" appearance and a t-shaped notch in the center

starch

56

WBC

57

will appear as oval, round or biconcave disks about 8 micrometers in diameter

RBC

58

RBC

59

RBC

60

are large, flat, irregularly shaped cells with small nuclei. They are approximately 40-60 µm in diameter

squamous cells

61

appear as round, pear shaped or tadpole shaped cells with a centrally located nucleus

Transitional cells

62

varies depending on the portion of the tubule in which they originate. Cells from the proximal tubule are larger ( 20-60 µm) with a small eccentric nucleus and can be mistaken for small granular casts. Cells from the distal convoluted tubule are smaller (14-25 µm) and have a small eccentric nucleus. RTE cells originating in the collecting ducts are the "typical" renal cells most frequently seen. This is the example shown here. They are usually small (12-20 µm), cuboidal or oblong in shape and have a large nucleus. The nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio of the collecting duct epthelial cells is about 1:1. RTE cells are often difficult to distinguish from small transitional cells. 

renal

63

 may appear singly or in sheets. Observe the very small nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio of these cells. 

squamous epithelial cells

64

 can appear singly or in sheets

renal tubular cells

65

appear singly. Again, note the large eccentric nuclei

renal tubular cells

66

renal tubular epithelial cells that contain lipids

Oval fat bodies are renal tubular epithelial cells that contain lipids. The lipids appear as round, highly refractile inclusions in the cell. Positive identification of an oval fat body should be made by using a polarizing microscope and/or fat stain. 

67

the fat droplets form a characteristic "Maltese Cross" with symmetrical arms when viewed with polarized light. If the fat is not cholesterol, it will not be visible with polarized light and the sediment will need to be stained with
fat stain. 

68

Commonly used stains are Sudan III and Sudan IV

If the fat is tryglyceride rather than cholesterol, a stain should be used to confirm the identification of the oval fat body. Commonly used stains are Sudan III and Sudan IV. The triglyceride containing fat droplets will stain orange red. 

69

Glomerulonephritis is a renal disorder characterized by inflammation and damage to the glomeruli. It is often the result of immunologic processes. The disease may be chronic or acute. 

RBC Cast

70

 

Pyelonephritis is an acute or chronic infection of the upper urinary tract involving the interstitial tissues, tubules or pelvis of the kidney. The infection may be caused by bacteria ascending from the bladder or from bacteria in the blood. 

WBC cast

71

Nephrotic syndrome is a syndrome characterized by increased permeability of the glomerulus and simultaneous clinical findings which include hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Characteristic urinary findings:•Large positive biochemical test for protein
•Free fat and oval fat bodies
•All kinds of casts, particularly fatty, waxy and renal
 

oval fat bodies