Test 4 Urinalysis Flashcards Preview

MLT Hematology, Chemistry, Phlebotomy, Micro > Test 4 Urinalysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4 Urinalysis Deck (80):
0

Which specimen is most concentrated and best for routine testing?

First morning specimen

1

What is the type of specimens?

RANDOM (most used)
FIRST MORNING
FASTING
2 HOUR POST PRANDIAL
CLEAN CATCH, MIDSTREAM
CATHETERIZED
SUPRAPUBIC

2

What is BEST FOR CULTURE OTHER THAN CATHETERIZED OR SUPRAPUBIC

Clean catch

3

Which specimen are for glucose testing?

Fasting
Post prandial

4

Examples of SPECIFIC SECURITY PROCEDURES

No purses
Empty pockets
Water turned off

5

What causes the yellow pigment?

Urochrome

6

Low specific gravity is what color?

Pale yellow "straw"

7

High specific gravity is what color?

Dark yellow

8

PINK/RED color is?

RBC or hemoglobin

9

Brown color is?

Myoglobin

10

Dark yellow is?

Concentrated specimen

11

Orange is?

Bilirubin (foams on top when shaken)
Or
Contaminate of pyridium dye

12

Amber is?

Dehydration/burns

14

Green is?

Pseudomonas infection

15

What is the suprapubic specimen

the doctor inserts a needle into the bladder to collect urine.

16

Chain of custody with what type of screening?

Drug screening

17

BQ: The primary chemical constituents of normal urine are:

Urea, chloride, and water

18

BQ: An unidentified fluid is received in the laboratory with a request to determine if fluid is urine or another body fluid. What tests would determine that the fluid is urine?

Urea and creatinine

19

BQ: A person exhibiting oliguria would have a daily urine volume of;

200-400ml

20

BQ: A patient presenting with polyuria, polydipsia, nocturnal, and high urine specific gravity...what is the disorder?

Diabetes mellitus

21

BQ: An unreserved specimen collected at 8am and kept at room temp and does not arrive until mid afternoon can be expected to have:

Decreased glucose and ketones Increased bacteria and nitrate

22

BQ: A specimen containing precipitated amorphous unrated may have been preserved using:

Refrigeration

23

BQ: What 3 changes will affect the results of a microscopic exam of urine if not tested within 2hours?

Increase bacteria Decrease RBC and casts

24

BQ: Best preservation of urinary sediments:

Boric acid and thymol

25

BQ: What chemical can be used to preserve specimen for culture and routine urinalysis?

Boric acid

26

BQ: What is the specimen of choice for routine urinalysis?

First morning specimen

27

BQ: Quantitative urine tests are performed on:

Timed specimens

28

BQ: Cessation of urine flow is termed:

Anuria

29

BQ: What type of urine specimen should be collected from patient who complains of painful urination and physician has ordered a routine UA and urine culture?

Midstream catch

30

BQ: Concentration of a normal urine specimen can be estimated by:

Color

31

BQ: Normal yellow color urine is produced by:

Urochrome

32

BQ: A yellow-brown specimen that produces a yellow foam when shaken can be suspected of containing:

Bilirubin

33

BQ: Urine turns black after standing. May contain:

Homogentisic acid, melanin, or methemoglobin

34

BQ: Specimens that contain intact RBCs can be visually distinguished from those that contain hemoglobin because:

RBCs produce a cloudy specimen

35

BQ: Specimens from patients receiving treatment for urinary tract infections frequently appear:

Viscous and orange

36

BQ: Freshly voided normal urine is usually clear; however if it is alkaline, a white turbidity may be present due to:

Amorphous phosphates and carbonates

37

BQ: Microscopic examination of a clear urine that produces pink precipitate after refrigeration will show:

Amorphous unrated

38

BQ: Under what conditions will a port-wine color be observed in a urine specimen?

Urine contains prophyrins

39

BQ: Specific gravitates likely to correlate with a dark yellow urine?

1.030

40

BQ: In what circumstance might a sediment be slightly warmed prior to microscopic exam?

To dissolve amorphous urates

41

BQ: A urine specific gravity measured by refractometer is 1.029 and the temperature of urine is 14 C. Specific gravity should be reported as:

1.027

42

BQ: Refractive index compares:

Light velocity in air with light velocity in solutions

43

BQ: Refractometers are calibrated using:

Distiller water and sodium chloride

44

BQ: A urine specimen with a specific gravity of 1.008 has been diluted 1:5 the actual specific gravity:

1.040

45

BQ: A specific gravity of 1.005 would be considered:

Hyposthenuric

46

BQ: A strong odor of ammonia in a urine specimen could indicate:

Urinary tract infection

47

BQ: Leaving a reagent strip in the specimen to long will:

Cause reagents to leach from the pads

48

BQ: Failure to mix a specimen prior to inserting the reagent strip will primarily affect the:

Blood reading

49

BQ: Testing a refrigerated specimen that has not warmed to room temp will adversely affect:

Enzymatic reactions

50

BQ: The reagent strip reaction that requires the longest reaction time is the:

Leukocyte set raise

51

BQ: Quality control of reagent strips is performed:

Using pos and neg controls
When results are questionable
At least once every 24 hours

52

BQ: The principle of the reagent strip test for pH is the:

Double indicator reaction

53

BQ: A urine specimen with a pH of 9.0:

Should be recollected

54

BQ: The principle of the protein error of indicators reaction is that:

Albumin accepts hydrogen ions from the indicator

55

BQ: Testing for microalbuminuria is valuable for monitoring patients with:

Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus
Cardiovascular disease risk

56

BQ: All the following are true for the Micral-test for microalbuminuria:

Run on first morning specimens
It contains an antibody-enzyme conjugate
Unbound antibody attaches to immobilized albumin

57

BQ: The principle of creatinine reagent pad on microalbumin reagent strips is:

Pseudoperoxidase reaction

58

BQ: The purpose of performing an albumin:creatinine ratio is to:

Correct for hydration in random specimens

59

BQ: A patient with normal blood glucose and a positive urine glucose should be further checked for:

Renal disease

60

BQ: The principle of the reagent strip tests for glucose is the:

Double sequential enzyme reaction

61

BQ: The primary reason for performing a Clinitest is to:

Check for newborn galactosuria

62

BQ: Three intermediate products of fat metabolism:

Acetoacetic acid
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid
Acetone

63

BQ: The most significant reagent strip test that is associated with a positive ketone result is:

Glucose

64

BQ: The primary reagent strip test for ketones is:

Sodium nitroprusside

65

BQ: Causes Ketonuria:

Diabetic acidosis
Starvation
Vomiting

66

BQ: Urinalysis on a patient with back and abdominal pain performed to check for:

Hematuria

67

BQ: Hemoglobinuria:

Associated with transfusion reactions
Clear,red urine and red plasma
Precipitated by ammonium sulfate
Produced hemosiderin granules in urinary sediments

68

BQ: Myoglobinuria:

Clear, red urine and pale yellow plasma
Associated with rhabdomylosis
Not precipitated by ammonium sulfate
Associated with acute renal failure

69

BQ: The principle of the reagent strip test for blood is based on the:

Peroxidase activity of heme

70

BQ: The principle of the reagent strip test for bilirubin is the:

Diazo reaction

71

BQ: An elevated urine bilirubin with normal urobilinogen is indicative of:

Biliary obstruction

72

BQ: A false negative bilirubin reaction is:

Specimen exposed to light

73

BQ: Purpose of a special mat supplied with the Ictotest tablets is:

Bilirubin remains on the surface of the mat

74

Handling and storage of dipsticks:

Room temp storage
Urine at room temp
Dessicant - removes moisture
No volatile flames
Use before exp. date

75

pH

Measures acidity or alkalinity of specimen
Useful for ID crystals
Urine is acid most of the time
Usually 4.5 to 8.0
pH of 9.0 indicates proliferation of bacteria - urease breaking down urea - old specimen

76

pH measurement

Double indicator system
Methyl red and bromthymol blue
One indicator chg color at low pH and the other at alkaline pH

77

Protein

Absence in blood significant
Overflow (prerenal) or indicate renal damage
Exercise, dehydration, muscle injury, glomerular disorders etc can cause proteinuria

78

Protein measurement

Error of indicators - two color normally chg with chg in pH
pH is held constant by a buffer (3.0)

79

SSA test

Sulfosalicylic acid - confirmatory test for protein - turbidity test
Detects all proteins and "Bence-Jones" proteins in multiple myeloma patients
Dipstick specific for albumin

80

Glucose

Diabetes mellitus