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Flashcards in chapt 1 Deck (91)
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1

integumentary system

-external body covering
-skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
- protects deep tissues from injury
-synthesizes vitamin D
-houses cutaneous(pain pressure) receptors

2

skeletal system

-composed of bone, cartilage and ligaments
-protects and supports body organisms
-provides framework for muscles
-site of blood cell formation (bone)

3

muscular system

-composed of muscles and tendons
-allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
-maintains posture
-produces heat

4

nervous system

-composed of brain, spinal column, and nerves
-fast acting control system of the body
- responds to stimuli and activating muscle and glands

5

endocrine system

-glands secrete hormones that regulate procedures such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism

6

cardiovascular system

-composed of heart and blood vessels
-heart pumps blood
- blood vessels transport blood (carries O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, etc.) throughout body

7

lymphatic system

-composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
- picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
-disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
-houses white blood cells involved with immunity

8

respiratory system

-composed of nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
- keeps blood supplied with O2 and removes CO2 (occurs through walls of the air sacs

9

digestive system

-composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver
-breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
-eliminates indigestible foodstuffs and feces

10

urinary system

-composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
-eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
-regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

11

organ systems working together

-integumentary system:protects body from external environment
-digestive and respiratory system:

12

maintaining boundaries

-internal environment remains distinct from the external environment
-cell lvl: plasma membrane
-organismal lvl: skin

13

movement

-locomotion, propulsion, and contractility
-skeletal and muscular system

14

responsiveness/excitability

-ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
-nervous system

15

digestion

-breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
-digestive system

16

metabolism

-chemical reactions that occur in the body
-digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and respiratory system

17

reproduction

-cellular(cell division) and organismal levels (sperm and egg)
-reproductive and endocrine systems

18

growth

increase size of body part of of the organism

19

ultimate goal

maintain life

20

nutrients

needed for energy and cell building

21

oxygen

necessary for metabolic reactions

22

water

provides the necessary environment for chem reactions

23

normal body temp

necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life sustaining rates

24

atmospheric pressure

required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

25

homeostasis

ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever changing outside world

26

interdependent components of control mechanisms

receptor, control center, effector

27

receptor

monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli)

28

control center

determines the set point at which the variable is maintained

29

effector

provides the means to respond to stimuli

30

negative feedback

output shuts of the original stimulus
ex) regulation of room temp

31

positive feedback

output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus

32

homeostatic imbalance

results in disease. imbalance increases as we age. can be caused by overwhelming the negative feedback negative feedback, causes destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over.

33

anatomical position

body facing forward, palms out, feet slightly apart

34

superior

toward the head

35

inferior

away from head

36

anterior

toward front of body

37

posterior

toward back of body

38

medial

toward midline

39

lateral

away from midline

40

intermediate

between a more medial and lateral structure

41

proximal

closer to the origin of the body part

42

distal

farther from the origin of the body part

43

superficial

toward the body surface

44

deep

away from body surface

45

nasal

nose

46

oral

mouth

47

cervical

neck

48

frontal

forehead

49

orbital

eye

50

buccal

cheek

51

mental

chin

52

acromial

point of shoulder

53

axillary

armpit

54

abdominal

abdomen

55

brachial

arm

56

antecubital

front of elbow

57

antebrachial

forearm

58

pelvic

pelvis

59

carpal

wrist

60

pollex

thumb

61

palmer

palm

62

digital

fingers

63

sternal

breastbone

64

thoracic

chest

65

mammary

breast

66

umbilical

navel

67

patellar

anterior knee

68

crural

leg

69

pedal

foot

70

tarsal

ankle

71

digital

toes

72

coxal

hip

73

inguinal

groin

74

femoral

thigh

75

fibular/ peroneal

side of leg

76

hallux

great toe

77

axial

head, neck and trunk

78

appendicular

appendages

79

sagittal

divides body into left and right parts

80

midsagittal or medial

sagittal plane that lies on the midline

81

frontal or coronal

divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

82

transverse or horizontal

divides the body into superior and inferior parts

83

oblique

cuts made diagonally

84

dorsal cavity

protects nervous system. divided into cranial and vertebral

85

cranial cavity

skull, encases brain

86

vertebral cavity

runs within the vertebral column, encase spinal cord

87

ventral vavity

houses internal organs and divided into subdivisions(thoracic and abdominopelvic)

88

serosa

thin double layered membrane that lies the walls on ventral body cavity and outer surface of the organs

89

parietal serosa

lines internal body walla

90

visceral serosa

covers internal organs

91

serious fluid

fluid b/w the serosae