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1

skeletal cartilage

molded to fit its location and fn. consists of water and no blood vessels/ nerves. surrounded by perichondrium(dense irregular connective tissue) that resists outward expansion

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3 types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.

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components of cartilage

chondrocytes encased in small cavities within an extracellular matrix containing a jellylike ground substance and fibers

4

hyaline cartilage

provides support, flexibility and resilience

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types of hyaline cartilage

articular, costal, respiratory, nasal

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articular cartilage

covers ends of long bones

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costal cartilage

connects ribs to sternum

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respiratory cartilage

makes up larynx, reinforces air passages

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nasal cartilage

supports the nose

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elastic cartilage

similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers. found in ear and epiglottis

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fibrocartilage

highly compressed with great tensile strength, contains collagen fibers, found in menisci of the knee and intervertebral discs

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growth of cartilage

appositional, interstitial, calcification

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appositional

cells in perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage (outside growth)

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interstitial

lacunae bound chondrocytes inside the cartilage divide and secret new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within (inside growth)

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calcification

(hardening due to deposit of calcium salts) of cartilage occurs during normal bone growth and old age

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axial skeleton

long axis of body. includes skull, vertebral column, rib cage. support and protect and cary other body parts

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appendicular skeleton

bones of upper and lower limbs, shoulder and hip. locomotion and manipulation of environment

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long bones

all limb bones except the patella, wrist, and ankle bones

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short bones

cube- shaped bones of the wrist and ankle. sesamoid bones that form within tendons (patella)

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flat bones

thin, flattened, and a bit curved (sternum, scapula, ribs and most skull bones)

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irregular bones

bones with complicated shapes (vertebrae and hip bones)

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support

form framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs

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protection

provide a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

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movement

provide levers for muscles allowing locomotion grasping of objects and breathing

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mineral and growth factor storage

reservoir for minerals especially calcium and phosphorus

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blood cell formation

hematopoiesis occurs w/in the red marrow cavities of bones

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triglyceride (fat) storage

fat which serves as an energy source is stored w/in bone

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hormone production

osteocalcin which regulates bone formation and protects against obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes

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gross anatomy of bone

compact bone, spongy bone (made up of trabeculae)

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trabeculae

honeycomb structure in the center. bone area where red or yellow bone marrow exists

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gross anatomy of bone (long bone)

diaphysis, epiphyses, and metaphysis

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diaphysis

shaft with an interior medullary cavity. in adults, the medullar cavity is filled w/ fat and called yellow marrow cavity.

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epiphysis

bone ends w/ a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articulating surface (serves as a cushion)

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epiphyseal line

remnant of the epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

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metaphysis

where diaphysis and epiphyses meet

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structure of long bone

membranes, red marrow

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membranes

periosteum double layer that covers the bone except the joint surfaces

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nutrient foramina

allow passage of blood vessels and nerves fibers

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endosteum

covers internal bone surfaces

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red marow

hematopoietic tissue

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where is red marrow in infants

in medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone

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where is red marrow in infants

found in dipole of flat bones and head of femur and humerus

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bulges, depressions, and holes serve as

sites of attatchment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
joint surfaces
conduits for blood vessels and nerves

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tuberosity projection Muscle & lg

rounded projection

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crest projection muscle & lig

narrow, prominent ridge of bone

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trochanter projection muscle & lig

large, blunt, irregular surface

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line projection muscle & lig

narrow ridge of bone

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tuberible projection muscle & lig

small rounded projection

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epicondyle projection muscle & lig

raised area above a condyle

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spine projection muscle & lig

sharp slender projection

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process projection muscle & lig

and bony prominence

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head projection joints

bondy expansion carried on a narrow neck

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facet projection joints

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

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condyle projection joints

rounded articular projections

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ramus projection joints

armlike bar of bone

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meatus

canal-like passageway

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sinus

cavity w/in a bone

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fossa

shallow, basin like depression

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groove

furrow

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fissue

narrow slit like opening

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foramen

round or oval opening through a bone

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osteogenic cells

osteoprogenitor cells, mitotically active cells found in the periosteum & endosteum. (flattened squamous cells that differenciate into osteoblasts & bone lining cells or stay as osteogenic cells)

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osteoblasts

bone forming cells that secrete matrix

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osteocytes

mature bone cells that monitor and maintain the bone matrix (destroy bone)

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blood lining cells

flat cells found on bone surfaces where bone remodeling is not going on that maintain matrix

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osteoclasts

large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix

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osteoid

unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen

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what originates from mesenchymal tissue

osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes

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lacunae

small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes

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canaliculi

hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

71

haversian system

osteon the structural unit of compact bone

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lamella

weight bearing column-like matrix tubes composed of maily colagen

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haversian central canal

central channel containing blood vessels and nerves

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volkmann's canal

channels lying at right angles to the central canal. connecting blood and nerve supply o fthe periosteum to the haversian canal

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organic composition of bone

its cells and osteoid (in matrix)
ground substances(proteogylcans & glycoproteins)
collagen fibers (bones structure, flexibility & tensile strength)

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inorganic

hydroxyapatities or mineral salts
-65%. mainly calcium phosphates. responsible for bone hardness and its restistance to compression

77

osterogenesis and ossification

the process of bone tissue formation. leads to:
formation of bony skeleton in embryos, bone growth until early adulthood, bone thickness, remodeling and repair

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when does formation of bone skeleton occur

begins @ week 8 (before that it was fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage)

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intramembranous ossification

bone develops from a fibrous membrane(bone is called membrane bone)

80

endochondral ossification

bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage(bone is called cartilage or endochondral (bone)