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1

cell theory

cell is basic structural and function unit of life

2

plasma membrane

separates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids

3

glycocalyx

glycoprotein area abutting the cell that provides highly specific biological markers which cells recognize one another

4

fluid mosaic model

double bilayer of lipids with imbedded, dispersed proteins
- bilayer consists of phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids

5

glycolipids

are lipids with attached sugar groups

6

fluid mosaic model

slide 6

7

integral proteins

attached with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions (transmembrane proteins and used for transporting)

8

peripheral proteins

attached loosely integral proteins that are network of filaments that help support the membrane from the cytoplasmic side

9

transport membrane porteins

provides a hydrophilic channel across membrane that is selective for a particular solute. some hydrolyze ATP as an energy source to pump

10

enzymatic activity membrane protein

active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. in some cases, several catalyze sequential steps of a metabolic pathway

11

receptors for signal transduction membrane protein

have a binding site with specific shape for specific thing to bing on. chemical change can occur

12

intercellular joining membrane proteins

membrane proteins of adjacent cells may be hooked together in various kinds of intercellular junctions. they provide temporary binding sites that guide cell migration and other cell to cell interactions

13

cell to cell recognition membrane proteins

some glycoproteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells

14

glycoproteins

proteins bonded to short chains of sugars

15

attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix membrane protein

elements of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix are anchored. fix locations and cell movement

16

lipid rafts

conc. platforms for cell signaling molecules

17

3 factors that bind cells together

glycoproteins in the glycocalyx act as an adhesive. wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together. special cell juctions

18

tight junction

impermeable junction that encircles the cell. ( epithelial cells lining GI tract)

19

desmosome

anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cells (skin and heart muscle)

20

gap junction

nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells (heart and smooth muscle)

21

diffusion

molecules/ ions move from high to low conc.

22

simple diffusion

diffusion of molecule or ion will directly through a plasma membrane (lipid soluble and small enough to pass through membrane channels and assisted by a carrier molecule)

23

facilitated diffusion

assisted diffusion where the substance binds to a carrier protein or passes through a channel (uses kinetic energy) transports glucose, amino acids and ions

24

osmosis

diffusion of water solvent across a semipermeable membrane

25

tonicity

how a solution affects cell volume

26

isotonic

solutions with the same solute conc. that of the cytosol

27

hypertonic

solutions having greater solute conc. than that of the cytosol

28

hypotonic

solutions having lesser solute conc. than that of the cytosol

29

active transport

uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane using a carrier protein

30

primary ative transport

energy to do work comes from hydrolysis of ATP. moves against conc. gradient

31

secondary transport

use of an exchange pump (Na+ and K+ pumps) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes

32

symport system

2 substances moved in same direction

33

antiport system

2 substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions

34

vesicular transport

transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membrane

35

exocytosis

moves substances from cell interior to extracellular space

36

endocytosis

enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell

37

transcytosis

moving substances into, across, then out of cell

38

vesicular trafficking

moving substances from one area of cell to another. plasma membrane infolds and bringing extracellular fluid and solutes into the interior of the cell

39

phagocytosis

pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into cell's interior

40

receptor mediated endocytosis

clathrin coated pits provide the main route for endocytosis and transcytosis

41

non clathrin coated vesicles

caveolae that are platforms for a variety of signaling molecules

42

membrane potential

selective permeability across a membrane leads to a membrane potential (voltage across a membrane)

43

resting potential

-50- -100 mV. polarized. maintained by active transport

44

how does a cell interact w/ its environment

direct contact & extracellular chemicals, hormones and neurotransmitters

45

contact signaling

cell to cell contact

46

electrical signaling

respond to changes in a membrane potential

47

chemical signaling

ligands(neurotransmitters, hormones, paracrine) bind to plasma membrane receptors

48

cytoplasm

material b/w plasma membrane and the nucleus

49

cytosol

largely water w/ dissolved protein, sals, sugars, and other solutes

50

organelles

metabolic machinery of the cell

51

membranous

mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus

52

nonmembranous

cytoskeleton, centriols, and ribosomes

53

inclusions

chemical substances(glycosomes, glycogen granules, pigment

54

mitochondria

double membrane structure w/ shelf- like cristae. privte most of cell's ATP through aerobic respiration

55

ribosomes

contain protein and rRNA, protein synthesis

56

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisternae that is conninuous with the nuclear membrane

57

rough ER

external surface stuffed with ribosomes

58

smooth ER

tubules arranged in a looping network

59

golgi apparatus

stacked and flattened membranous sacs, fn in modification, conc. and packaging of proteins

60

lysosomes

spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes (found in luekocytes, immune cells, and melanocytes

61

endomembrane system

includes:
nuclear envelope, smooth and rough ER, lysosomes, vacuoles, transport vesicles, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane

62

peroxisomes

membranous sacs containing oxidases and catalases. detoxify harmful or toxic substances

63

cytoskeleton

series of rods running through the cytosol. consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

64

microtubules

hollow tubes made of tubulin, determine shape of cell

65

microfilaments

strands of actin attached to cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane, strengthens cell surface

66

intermediate fibers

tough insoluble protein fibers with high tensile strength

67

microtubules and microfilaments

both powered by ATP

68

centrioles

small barrel shaped organelles located in the centresome near nucleus. organize mitotic spindle during mitosis. form bases of cilia and flagella

69

cilia

move substances in one direction across cell surface

70

nucleus

gene containing control centrer. dictates the kinds and amounts of proteins to be synthesized

71

nuclear envelope

permeable double membrane barrier containing pores

72

nucleoplasm

enclosed jelly like substance containing essential solutes

73

nucleoli

dark staining spherical bodies within the nucleus where ribosome production occurs

74

chromatin

distinct compartments in rich specific protein sets. threadlike strands of DNA and histones. arranged in nucleosomes. from chromosomes

75

cell cycle

interphase, mitotic phase, cytokinesis

76

G1

metabolic activity and vigorous growth

77

G0

no activity cells that permanetly cease dividing

78

S

DNA replication

79

G2

preparation of enzymes and proteins for division

80

cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm

81

control of cell division

surface to volume ratio of cells, chem signals(growth factors and hormomes), when cells touch, cyclins and Cdk complexes

82

mRNA

carries genetic info from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

83

tRNA

bound to amino acid base pair w/ codons of mRNA at the ribosome to begin process of protein synthesis

84

rRNA

structural component of ribosomes

85

RNA polymerase

an enzyme that oversees the synthesis of RNA

86

transcription initiation

unwinds the DNA template

87

transcription elongation

adds complementary ribonucleoside triphosphates on the DNA template and joins these RNA nucleotides together

88

transcription termination

encodes a termination signal to stop transcription

89

translation initiation

ribosomal subunit binds to a special methionine

90

translation elongation

mRNA is moved through the ribosome in one direction adding one amino acid at the time

91

translation termination

stop codon causes the stop

92

start codon

AUG

93

stop codon

UAA, UAG, UGA

94

Antisense RNA

prevents protein coding RNA from being translated

95

microRNA

small RNAs that interfere with mRNA made by certain exons

96

Riboswitches

mRNA that act as switches regulating protein synthesis in response to environmental conditions