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1

integumentary system

skin, sweat and oil glands, hair, nails

2

epidermis

epithelial cells and outermost superficial region (non-vascularized nutrients reach epidermis by diffusion from dermis)

3

dermis

middle region making up the bulk of the skin (vascularized)

4

hypodermis

(superficial fascia) deepest region w/ adipose and areolar connective tissue
(stores fat, anchors skin to underlying structures, absorbs shock and insulates)

5

where do males gain the most weight

abdomen

6

where do females gain the most weight

breast and thighs

7

what type of tissue is found in epidermis

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

8

4 cell types in epidermis

keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhan, merkel cells

9

keratinocytes

produce fibrous protein keratin (protection)

10

melanocytes

produce the brown pigment melanin

11

langerhans'

macrophages that help activate the immune system(ingest foreign substances and are key activators in immune system)

12

merkel cell

fn as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings

13

layers of epidermis

stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum grandulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

14

stratum basale

(basal layer) deepest epidermal layer firly attached to dermis. single row o stem cells undergoing rapid cell division

15

stratum spinosum

(prickly layer) several layers thik w/ cells that contain weblike system of intermediate filaments attached desmosomes (melanin grandules and langerhans are mostly in this layer)

16

stratum grandulosum

(thin) 3-5 layers, drastic changes in keratinocytes appearance occurs (keratinization starts) (keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate in the cells)

17

stratum lucidum

(clear layer) transparent band superfiscial to the stratum granulosum present in thick skin only (has few rows of flat dead keratinocytes

18

stratum corneum

(horny layer) outermost layer of keratinized cells that accounts for 3/4 of eridermal thickness
-waterproofing
-protection from abrasion and penetration
-rendering the body relatively insensitive to biological, chemical, and physical assaults

19

layers of dermis

papillary layer, reticular layer

20

papillary layer

thin layer areolar connective tissue w/ collagen and elastic fibers. superior surface contains peg-like projections called dermal papillae containing capillary loops, meisner's corpuscles and free nerve endings. ( skin ridges w/ sweat pores create our fingerprints)

21

reticular layer

80% of thickness of skin made of coarse, irregularly arranged dense fibrous CT. (collagen fibers in layer add strength and resiliency to skin- run parallel to skin surface creating ridges) (elastin fibers provide stretch, recoil properties)

22

pigments contribute to skin color

melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

23

melanin

yellow-redish/brown- black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors

24

carotene

yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in palms and soles of feet

25

hemoglobin

reddish pigment responsible for pinkish hue of skin

26

when skin is red (erythema)

embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy

27

when skin is pallor (blanching)

fear, anger, emotional stress, anemia, low blood pressue

28

when skin is jaundice (yellowcast)

liver disorder-yellow bile pigments accumulate and deposit in tissue

29

when skin is bronzing bronz, metalic appearance

addison dz- adrenal cortex doesnt secrete sufficient amts of steroid hormones or pituitary gland tumor that secretes insufficient amts of MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)

30

when skin is black and blue

bruising/ hematomas, blood escaped from circulation and clotted below the skin

31

hair

covers out body w/ the exception of the palms, soles, lips and parts of external genetalia.
-senses insects on skin before the do harm
-on head, guard against physical trauma heat loss and sun light
-eyelashes shield eyes
-nose hairs filter large particles

32

what do hair folicles produce

filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells

33

difference b/w keratin in hair and skin

hair contains hard keratin which is tougher and more durable than soft keratin in skin

34

types of hair

vellus, terminal,

35

vellus

pale, fine hair found in children and adult female

36

terminal

coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions

37

how does terminal hair grow

in response to hormones called androgens (esp testosterone)
*nutrition and hormones)

38

alopecia

hair thinning in both sexes, where immune system attacks the follicle and hair falls out in patches

39

true/ frank baldness

genetically determined/ sex linked condition
-male pattern baldness, caused by follicular response to DHT (metabolite of testosterone)

40

hair thinning

high fever, surgury, severe emotional trauma, certain drugs, protein deficient diets and lactation

41

yellow tinged nail nail anormaliy

respiratory or thyroid gland disorder

42

thickened yellow nail anormality

fungus

43

convavity of nail (spoon nail)

iron deficient

44

horizontal lines on nail (beau's lines)

malnutrition

45

sweat glands

sudoriferous glands- different types prevent overheating of the body; secrete cerum and milk

46

eccrine sweat glands

secretes sweat- hypotonic filtrate of blood that passes trough the secretory cells of the sweat gland and is released by exocytosis. water, salt, vit C, antibodies, dermcidin (microbe killing peptide) and traces metabolic wastes.
sympathetic division of the ANS controls sweating- we have little control over this(nervous and heat reduction)

47

apocrine sweat glands

found in axillary and anogenital areas. fluid similar to eccrine sweat glands plus fatty substances and proteins. fn around puberty, influenced by androgens. activated my sympathetic nervous system during pain/stress

48

ceruminous glands

modified aporine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerum(ear wax) block entry from foreign material

49

mammary glands

specialized sweat glands that secrete milk

50

sebaceous glands

secrete and oily secretion called sebum. alveolar glands found all over the body. soften skin when stimulated by hormones

51

white head

sebum blocks a sebaceous gland

52

black head

sebum material oxidizes and dries

53

acne

inflammation of sebaceous gland + pimples (pustules or cysts) on skin. accomanied by staphylococcus infx

54

cradle cap

overactive sebacous glands that causes seborrhea (fast flowing sebum) starts as pink scales then yellow and then brown peels off

55

ex of androgen

testosterone

56

structue of a nail

scalelike modification of the epidermis on the distal, dorsal surface of fingers and toes

57

fn of integumentary system

protection, body temp, cutaneous sensation, metabolic fn, blood reservoir, extration

58

protection

chemical, physical, and mechanical barrier

59

body temp

regulates by dilation(cooling) & constriction(warming) of dermal vessels and inc. sweat glands secretions to cool of the body

60

cutaneous senstaiton

extroreceptors sense touch and pain

61

metabolic fn

synthesis of vit D in dermal blood vessels

62

blood reservoir

skin blood vessels store up to 5% of the body's blood volume

63

excretion

limited amounts of nitrogenous wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat

64

3 maj. types of skin cancer

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell cercinoma, melanoma

65

skin cancer

most tumors are benign and do not metastasize. risk factor= disabling p53 gene.

66

basal cell carcinoma

least malignant and most common skin cancer. stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis. slow growing. 99% curable through surgical excision

67

squamous cell carcinoma

arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum. on scalp, ears and lower lip, grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed. radiation or surgery

68

melanoma

cancer of melanocytes. mot dangerous skin cancer. highly metastatic. resistant to chemo. . treated w/ surgery/ immunotherapy

69

ABCD rule

asymmetry, border, color, diameter

70

what is concerning for diameter

over 6 mm. chance of survival is poor is the lesion is over 4 mm thick

71

burns

tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals that denatures the cell proteins and kills cells in the affected area

72

what do severe burns cause

loss of body fluid, electrolyte imbalance, renal failue and circulatory shock. 24 hours of sterility and then infcection becomes maj. concern. (skin barrier destroyed and immune system is weakened)

73

1st degree burn

only the epidermis is damaged. causes local redness, swelling and pain (heal 2-3 days)

74

2nd degree burn

epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged. symptoms like 1st but blisters apear 3-4 weeks

75

3rd degre

entire thickness of skin is damaged. burned area is grey-white, cherry red, or black; no initial edema or pain b/c nerve endings are destroyed

76

severity of burns

25% has 2nd degree, 10% has 3rd degree, if there are 3rd degree of face, hands or feet