Chapter 02 - Models of Abnormality Flashcards Preview

PSYC& 220 > Chapter 02 - Models of Abnormality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 02 - Models of Abnormality Deck (44)
Loading flashcards...
1

Model

Set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. Also called a paradigm.

2

Synapse

The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another.

3

neuron

a nerve cell

4

neurotransmitter

a chemical that, when release by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received by

5

receptor

a site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter

6

hormones

the chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream

7

brain circuit

a network of particular brain structures that work together, triggering each other into action to produce a distinct kind of behavioral, cognitive, or emotional reaction.

8

genes

Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit

9

psychotropic medication

drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunction

10

brain stimulation

interventions that directly or indirectly stimulate the brain in order to bring about psychological improvement

11

electroconvulsive therapy ECT

a biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered when an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patients forehead

12

psychosurgery

brain surgery for mental disorders

13

Id

according to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses.

14

ego

according to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle.

15

ego defense mechanisms

according to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse.

16

superego

according to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals.

17

fixation

according to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, or superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development.

18

free association

a psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant

19

resistance

an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy

20

transference

according to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in the patient's life, now or in the past.

21

dream

a series of ideas or images that form during sleep

22

catharsis

the reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems.

23

working through

the psychoanalytic process of facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one's problems.

24

conditioning

a simple form of learning

25

classical conditioning

a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response.

26

modeling

a process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others.

27

operant conditioning

a process of learning in which individuals come to behave in certain ways as a result of experiencing consequences of one kind or another whenever they perform the bahavior.

28

social anxiety disorder

a psychological disorder in which people fear social situations

29

exposure therapy

a behavior focused intervention in which fearful people are repeatedly exposed to the objects or situations they dread

30

self-actualization

the humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth

31

client - centered therapy

the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness.

32

gestalt therapy

the humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self recognition and self acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self discovery exercises

33

existential therapy

a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value

34

group therapy

a therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems

35

self - help group

a group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without direct leadership of a clinician. Also called a mutual help group.

36

family therapy

a therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways

37

couple therapy

a therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long - term relationship. Also called marital therapy.

38

community mental health treatment

a treatment approach that emphasizes community care

39

multicultural perspective

the view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members. Also called culturally diverse perspective.

40

culture - sensitive therapies

approaches that are designed to help address the unique issues faced by members of cultural minority groups

41

gender - sensitive therapies

approaches geared to the pressures of being a woman in Western society. Also called feminist therapies.

42

developmental psychopathology

a perspective that uses a developmental framework to understand how variables and principles from the various models may collectively account for human functioning

43

equifinality

the principle that a number of different developmental pathways can lead to the same psychological disorder

44

multifinality

the principle that persons with a similiar developmental history may nevertheless react to similar current situations in very different ways