What are the key linguistic features of DLD:
form: error in speech production, poor phonological awareness
content: delayed acquisition of first words, restricted vocab
Use: difficulty understanding complex lang. and long stretches of discourse, difficulty with coherent narrative, difficulty understanding ambig. language
Name and describe different domains of language
form: syntax, morphology, phonology
content: semantic components, vocab knowledge, knowledge of objects and events
use: realm of pragmatics ability to use language for social purposes
Which criterion would result in identifying more children with language disorder: the tenth percentile or 1 standard deviation below the mean? what other factors may be important to diagnosis
you must go beyond standard scores when diagnosing as tests may be
you must take into consideration other factors such as ?
-all of these in accordance with
10th percentile (1.25 SD below the mean)
-1 SD below the mean would be too broad and include false negatives
2 SD would be too narrow limiting access
culturally or linguistically biased
cultural background, play skills, overall behavior, and even pragmatics
normal developmental stages for that pertaining pop./comm.
Are there subtypes of DLD?
no: biological mechanisms that give rise to particular subgroup differ from those that give rise to other types, rarely take deviations into account
What are the key components of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health? How would you use this system in clinical practice ?
Biological: difference in genetic risk and neurological function
-reduced asymmetry, motor cortex anomalies
Cognitive: difference in perception and info processing
-limited capacity system, procedural learning deficit, insufficient auditory processing
environmental: external experiences, increase or decrease risk
- family history , mental education, intervention
How do we study language in the brain: 2 common ways
MRI: magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological measures
EXTRA NC FOR REST
Why are twin studies important to understanding the biological basis of DLD
DLD tends to ?
twin studies capitalize on the fact that ?
identical twins resemble each other with respect to ?
specify genetic and environmental contributions to disorder
heritable DLD phenotype
identical (MZ) twins are genetically identical
DLD diagnosis more closely than do fraternal twins
What are some of the differences in brain structure and function associated with DLD:
atypical patterns of asymmetry of language cortex
-abnormalities of white matter volume, cortical dysplasia, additional gyri in frontal or temporal regions and unusual proportions of anatomical structures implicated in language processing
-what is powerful tool that can shape development and positively influence behavioral outcome
no , can be positively treated
What environmental factors should we consider in DLD:
Family SES: low SES have protracted rates of language development relative to peers
maternal edu.: limited education and lower income = parental language impairments
Is DLD a disorder of language or learning
Top down processing -what driven -language processing is? using ? -what influences how we process new input of both cognitive and linguistic processes ? we develop? then we ? we either ?
- concept driven/higher level processes
- prior knowledge, concepts and expectations
- expectations of what will occur/compare features of stimuli to our expectations
- confirm or don’t confirm our expectations
Bottom up processing:
-the lower level auditory processes such as ? provide ?
however, these lower processes do not operate in a ?
instead they work in the ?
so prior knowledge including knowledge of language , always influences ?
-perception and discrimination/ input that is necessary to the function of higher level processes/ comprehension
- contest of prior knowledge
- how one processes input
what have intervention studies revealed about the role of auditory processing in DLD?
children with DLD have difficulties perceiving sounds that are?
when processing demands increase capacity for recall?
children with DLD should have a harder time processing?
presented rapidly, are brief, and not perceptually salient
is reduced; sentences of increasing length and complexity
what do we mean by a multiple deficit account of DLD ?