stage or period of development in which ?
-children may enter this stage at ?
for typically-developing children occurs between
conventional words are just beginning to appear as viable means of comm.
Sequence of Goals for building emerging language through early intervention:
play and gesture intentional comm. acts receptive lang. sounds, words and word combinations first lexicon word combinations and sentences
a method for encouraging emerging language in a hybrid model with a balance of child-centered and clinician directed aspects: Milieu Teaching
arranging environment to focusing on and following embedding? focusing on specific ? using prompts and reinforcement to providing ? waiting for the child to ? is an important component
instruction with ongoing interaction and social routines
elicit and maintain comm. behaviors
natural consequences to child’s attempt to comm.
a person’s social environment, your social surroundings
Milieu teaching approaches: a group of ? to build ? grounded in ? perspectives on learning substantial evidence base for ? adult creates ? to provide ? many types of ?
naturalistic behavioral interventions used since 1970 /comm. skills in children with developmental delays, ASD, and language disorder
behavioral and social interactionist
improving children’s comm. responsivity to other people in their natural environ.
situations and uses materials/ opp. for child to comm.
comm. behavior may be reinforced
MCT: Milieu comm. teaching
-therapeutic approach we can use with young children who have dev. language disability to help them?
-accounts for ?
RE: responsivity education: provided to the parents by? encourages ?
learn words and early gram. structures
strategies for children with DD who are prelinguistic
additional environ. variables beyond basic MLT
clinician/ optimal responsiveness to child’s attempts to comm.
MT procedures incude:
how this works:
using mand-modeling adults asks child ?
if child does not respond the adult ?
when a child consistently responds to mand model then you?
when a child responds consistently without spoken instruction during time delay, the focus shifts to ?
what do you want? with expectation of verbal response
provides model of correct response
introduce a time delay in delivering the mand to fade the spoken prompt
expanding child’s utterance or following his or her lead to model related vocab (incidental teaching)
What is the goal of PMT?
help children establish and to increase ? of ?
focus on increasing?
freq., clarity, and complexity of non-ling. comm. acts
non-ling. vocalizations, coordinated eye gaze, gestures
Enabling contexts for PMT: natural ? arrange environment to follow -including
support child’s need to comm.
-parallel play and parallel talk
in a school context we may be assisting
it includes ?
different than PMT: in PMT we want the child to ? in RE the adult simply ? without
clinician works with the parent at home for ?
reciprocal interactions between parent and chid to help build child’s social comm. skills
imitate clinician/ model language - without expectation of child to imitate
8-9 sessions/ 3-6 months
incorporates a combo of ?
effective when combined with
AAC, joint attention, symbolic play, engagement and regulation
Toddlers with ASD building their receptive language: what kind of joint attention use ? as opposed to provide highly engaging joint attentional opportunities by -sharing -actively ? -provide
real objects vs. pictures
interesting objects and activities
attract child’s attention and gaze to object and to the comm. partner
simple, receptive language to accompany activity
Building their expressive language:
provide access to ?
provide opportunities for child to ?
blended treatment results in ?
milieu teaching focused on eliciting ?
speech generating ?
focus on ?
AAC (PECS, sign language, or voice output device) as first step toward spoken comm.
vocalize and learn to shape vocalizations towards word use and use vocal behaviors as comm. tools
more comm. and word prod.
speech in joint attention and play activities
pivotal skills (joint attention, imitation of sounds and gestures, symbolic play)
Evidence based methods to decrease echolalia:
- what for immediate ?
-differential reinforcement of ?
what plus what
what plus what for appropriate responses
cues pause point
lower rates of behavior
script training/visual cues
verbal modeling / positive reinforcement
older children with emerging language: intervention should center on maximizing ? providing child with ? expanding child's opp. for ?
child’s effectiveness with emerging comm. forms
opp. to expand the sophistication of com.
and responsiveness to their comm. by people in environment
Intervention targets: relating symbols to referents (considerations for AAC) -intentional comm. -use -... infused joint attention - ... materials -build ?
-prerequisite conversation skills (turn taking, initiate and maintain interaction,repair breakdowns, terminating convo.)
provide models of talk about ? using?
AAC systems: consider
for children with severe hI consider
things or events that are displaced in time / highly scripted events that happened in past or coming up in near future
iconicity of symbols, range of vocab items available
total comm. approach