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discuss pros and cons of early intervention for delayed language development in toddlers

pros: may serve ? helping to minimize ?
- faster gains than those in
- increases ? but results in ?



secondary preventative function/later effects on learning when basic oral lang. problems resolve

normal dev.
-language skills/ improvements in social skills and reductions in parental stress

providing intervention for children who are slow and catch up would not be cost effective


what is meant by children with emerging language in this chapter:
-what range , how many months
-begin ? producing ?
refers to comm. skills that emerge in ? between?
some older children with severe comm. disorders may continue to ?
children age 0-3 with dev. disorders are served under


toddler age/ 18-36 months
-single words and beg. to combine words into 2 word utterances and simple sentences

-function at this level of comm.

Part C of IDEA


what is involved in family-centered intervention for toddlers ?

1) spending time with
2) finding out
3) including
4) including
5) identifying
6) reviewing
7) identifying
8) working with families to
9) enabling parents to

why is it important


1) family to learn about their vision for child
2) what families expect from program in order to come to consensus about what is reasonable to expect
3) family’s assessment of child in assessment report
4) multiple ways for family to be involved
5) normal routines and activities that can serve as contexts for learning
6) progress with families to make sure new skills used consistently across natural environments
7) important people who child needs to practice comm. skills with
8) find ways to use childrens interests to involve them in every day learning opp.
9) decide on correct balance for family

children with emerging language is primarily in context of family. practice for this developmental level too must be family centered to succeed


under what circumstances would you attempt to develop symbolic play skills in a child with emerging language?
-not demonstrating any

how would you do it? 
-object ?
-... play sequence 
-... sequence 

appropriate or semi-appropriate use of objects or symbolic play gestures

  • functional play: use of actual object in manner they were intended
  • object substitution: use one object as if it were diff. one
  • absent object
  • absent attributes - assign dramatic roles to self, others, objects
  • functional play sequence
  • substitution sequence
  • confirmatory vocalizations: identifying specific roles children are acting out
  • scripts: verbalizations taught via script

what methods would you use to increase nonverbal comm. skills in a child with emerging lang.:


use comm. temptation - using hybrid method, not requiring specific responses but structure the situation and provide multiple opportunities and models for the child


how can maladaptive forms of comm. be handled?
needs to be ?
alternative means of expressing intent need to be ?


immediately provided and reinforced when used by client
functional comm. training


Under what conditions would you include work on receptive language in the communication program for a child with emerging language ?

ILS- used to provide multiple opportunities for the child to observe how?
can be taught through ?
-encourage parents to provide

relation between ?


when comprehension deficits are identified

-language works to map nonlinguistic context onto words/ parent modeling/super normal levels of facilitative stimuli

receptive and expressive language - broad range of models in play and other facilitative contexts to build receptive vocab


would you work on diminishing phonological process use by a child with emerging language ? why or why not? if not what phon. skills would you target

language delayed children have a rather limited ? and out job is to ? therefore primary focus of phon. intervention is to ?

it is not recommended to target ? don’t?


repertoire of sounds and syll. structure / expand this repertoire./ expand consonant pool and syll. structure towards a dev.commensurate level

elimination of phon. processes at this early stage / correct errors


What considerations go into choosing the first lexicon ?

choose words similar to ? 
-not all words should be ?
need to teach words that can be used to talk about relations?
-words are functional and fulfill a ?
-what and what of words to be taught

normally developing children

  • labeling words (rejection, recurrence, action on objects, locative action, attribution)
  • among objects: pronouns (i, you) function words (that,the) and relational words (more,all done)

-broad range of comm. purposes, want to teach words they can make use of often to accomplish social goals

phonological shape and composition


what methods would you use to increase the vocabulary size of a child with emerging language?

  • encourage parents to use a ?
  • provide a range of ?

child-centered: involving ?
-introducing activities and objects to which ?

hybrid: ?



rich mix of words
-objects, events, and relations in the clear, here and now context

  • natural play contexts
  • targeted words can refer and having clinician provide models of use of target words

focused stimuation, milieu teaching using mand model or incidental teaching
-script or routines based therapy

drill, drill play, clinician directed modeling with required imitation


Describe one clinician directed, one hybrid and one child-centered approach to developing two word combos in speech of child with emerging language

child centered: use of

clinician: what procedure


use of language facilitation - adult engages in play situation and expands upon one word utterance

vertical structuring: doggy, clinician says where is doggy, if he responds with one words clinician expands into more complete utterance

modeling procedure, show picture and describe then ask them to describe similar but diff. picture


Do you think adult speech to children with emerging language should be telegraphic?


no because higher rates of tele. speech by parents were assoc. with lower lexical diversity in children’s spoken language at a later time


what are the primary areas of intervention that should be addressed in toddlers with ASD?

establish ?
-work toward ?
enhance attention to ?


foundational skills for language learning: imitation, prelinguistic comm., gesture and play skills to enhance language comprehension

  • acquisition of spoken language
  • speech and receptive vocab and utterance length and work with echolalia - don’t extinguish

what aspects of intervention are unique to older, severely impaired clients with emerging language


play and gesture - age appropriate activities

intentional comm.: age appropriate materials, functional

comprehension: displaced talk, aided language stimulation
production: use of AAC device


describe the role of emerging literacy skills in older clients. what functions can emergent literacy serve for these clients ?

focus on ?
use of ?


functional things - shopping lists, street signs, notes on fridge

magazines and simple books to promote literacy skills - can serve to help client toward a more functional independence


define FCT and its role in AAC provision for children with severe disorders

consider ?


physical abilities of client - will they be able to easily learn how to use device ? will family be able to support them if problems arise ?


talk about considerations in developing emergent literacy for children from cult. diff. backgrounds


consider family situation/comfort levels

  • use language the family is most comfortable with
  • find an activity most comfortable with child’s needs in mind