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1

According to Henri Fayol, the functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling are considered which aspect of management?
a. Roles c. Functions
b. Process d. Taxonomy

B: The management process includes planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling. Management roles include information processing, interpersonal relationships, and decision making. Management functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. A taxonomy is a system that orders principles into a grouping or classification. THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

2

Which of the following is considered a decisional managerial role?
a. Disseminator c. Leader
b. Figurehead d. Entrepreneur

D: The decisional managerial roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, allocator of resources, and negotiator. The information processing managerial roles include monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. The interpersonal managerial roles include figurehead, leader, and liaison. MANAGERIAL ROLES

3

A nurse manager meets regularly with other nurse managers, participates on the organization’s committees, and attends meetings sponsored by professional organizations in order to manage relationships. These activities are considered which function of a manager?
a. Informing c. Monitoring
b. Problem solving d. Networking

D: The role functions to manage relationships are networking, supporting, developing and mentoring, managing conflict and team building, motivating and inspiring, recognizing, and rewarding. The role functions to manage the work are planning and organizing, problem solving, clarifying roles and objectives, informing, monitoring, consulting, and delegating. THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

4

A nurse was recently promoted to a middle-level manager position. The nurse’s title would most likely be which of the following?
a. First-line manager c. Vice president of patient care services
b. Director d. Chief nurse executive

B: A middle-level manager is called a director. A low managerial-level job is called the first-line manager. A nurse in an executive level role is called a chief nurse executive or vice president of patient care services.THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

5

A nurse manager who uses Frederick Taylor’s scientific management approach, would most likely focus on which of the following?
a. General principles c. Labor productivity
b. Positional authority d. Impersonal relations

C: The area of focus for scientific management is labor productivity. In bureaucratic theory, efficiency is achieved through impersonal relations within a formal structure and is based on positional authority. Administrative principle theory consists of principles of management that are relevant to any organization. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

6

According to Vroom’s Theory of Motivation, force:
a. is the perceived possibility that the goal will be achieved.
b. describes the amount of effort one will exert to reach one’s goal.
c. describes people who have free will but choose to comply with orders they are given.
d. is a naturally forming social group that can become a contributor to an organization.

B: According to Vroom’s Theory of Motivation, Force describes the amount of effort one will exert to reach one’s goal. Valence speaks to the level of attractiveness or unattractiveness of the goal. Expectancy is the perceived possibility that the goal will be achieved. Vroom’s Theory of Motivation can be demonstrated in the form of an equation: Force = Valence  Expectancy (Vroom, 1964). The theory proposes that this equation can help to predict the motivation, or force, of an individual as described by Vroom. TABLE 1-2 MANAGEMENT THEORIES

7

According to R. N. Lussier, motivation:
a. is unconsciously demonstrated by people.
b. occurs externally to influence behavior.
c. is determined by others’ choices.
d. occurs internally to influence behavior.

D: Motivation is a process that occurs internally to influence and direct our behavior in order to satisfy needs. Motivation is not explicitly demonstrated by people, but rather it is interpreted from their behavior. Motivation is whatever influences our choices and creates direction, intensity, and persistence in our behavior. MOTIVATION

8

According to R. N. Lussier, there are content motivation theories and process motivation theories. Which of the following is considered a process motivation theory?
a. Equity theory
b. Hierarchy of needs theory
c. Existence-relatedness-growth theory
d. Hygiene maintenance and motivation factors

A: The process motivation theories are equity theory and expectancy theory. The content motivation theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Aldefer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory, and Herzberg’s hygiene maintenance factors and motivation factors. MOTIVATION THEORIES

9

The theory that includes maintenance and motivation factors is:
a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. c. McGregor’s theory X and theory Y.
b. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. d. Ouchi’s theory Z.

B: The two-factor theory of motivation includes motivation and maintenance factors. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs includes the following needs: physiological, safety, security, belonging, and self-actualization. In theory X, employees prefer security, direction, and minimal responsibility. In theory Y, employees enjoy their work, show self-control and discipline, are able to contribute creatively, and are motivated by ties to the group, organization, and the work itself. The focus of theory Z is collective decision making and long-term employment that involves slower promotions and less direct supervision. TWO-FACTOR THEORY

10

A nurse is appointed to a leadership position in the local hospital. The nurse’s position would be considered which of the following?
a. Informal leadership c. Leadership
b. Formal leadership d. Management

B: Formal leadership is based on occupying a position in an organization. Informal leadership is shown by an individual who demonstrates leadership outside the scope of a formal leadership role or as a member of a group. Leadership is a process of influence whereby the leader influences others toward goal achievement. Management is a process to achieve organizational goals. DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

11

A nursing instructor is evaluating whether the nursing students understand the three fundamental qualities that leaders share. According to Bennis and Nanus, the fundamental qualities of effective leaders are:
a. guided vision, passion, and integrity.
b. knowledge of self, honesty, and maturity.
c. intelligence, self-confidence, and determination.
d. honesty, self-awareness, and sociability.

A: Bennis and Nanus list guided vision, passion, and integrity as fundamental qualities of effective leaders. Knowledge of self, honesty and maturity; intelligence, self-confidence and determination; self-awareness and sociability are all desirable traits in leaders as well as in others. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS

12

The six traits identified by Kirkpatrick and Locke that separate leaders from non-leaders were:
a. respectability, trustworthiness, flexibility, self-confidence, intelligence, sociability.
b. self-confidence, progression of experiences, influence of others, personal life factors, honesty, drive.
c. intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, sociability, honesty.
d. drive, desire to lead, honesty, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of business.

D: Research by Kirkpatrick and Locke concluded that leaders possess six traits: drive, desire to lead, honesty, self-confidence, cognitive ability, and knowledge of the business. Woods identified five dominant factors that influenced leadership development: self-confidence, innate qualities, progression of experience, influence of significant others, and personal life factors. Stogdill identified the following traits of a leader: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. Murphy and DeBack identified the following leader characteristics: caring, respectability, trustworthiness, and flexibility. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS

13

A nurse manager who uses a leadership style that is participatory and where authority is delegated to others is most likely using which of the following leadership styles?
a. Autocratic c. Laissez-faire
b. Democratic d. Employee-centered

B: Democratic leadership is participatory, and authority is delegated to others. Autocratic leadership involves centralized decision making, with the leader making decisions and using power to command and control others. Laissez-faire leadership is passive and permissive, and the leader defers decision making. Employee-centered leadership focuses on the human needs of subordinates. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

14

A characteristic of the consideration dimension of leadership behavior is:
a. focus on the work to be done. c. focus on production.
b. focus on the task. d. focus on the employee.

D: The leadership dimension of consideration involves activities that focus on the employee. Initiating structures of leadership involves an emphasis on the work to be done, and a focus on the task and production. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

15

The leadership theory that considers follower readiness as a factor in determining leadership style is:
a. contingency. c. situational.
b. path goal. d. charismatic.

C: Situational leadership considers the follower readiness as a factor in determining leadership style. Contingency theory views the pattern of leader behavior as dependent on the interaction of the personality of the leader and the needs of the situation. In path goal theory, the leader works to motivate followers and influence goal accomplishment. Charismatic leadership has an inspirational quality that promotes an emotional connection from followers. HERSEY AND BLANCHARD'S SITUATIONAL THEORY

16

In contingency theory, the feelings and attitudes of followers regarding acceptance, trust, and credibility of the leader are called:
a. task structure. c. low task structure.
b. position power. d. leader-member relations.

D: In contingency theory, leader-member relations are the feelings and attitudes of followers regarding acceptance, trust, and credibility of the leader. Task structure of contingency theory means the degree that work is defined, with specific procedures, explicit directions, and goals. Low task structure involves work that is not routine, predictable, or clearly defined. Position power in contingency theory is the degree of formal authority and influence associated with the leader. FIEDLER'S CONTINGENCY THEORY

17

In situational theory, a telling leadership style is considered:
a. high task, high relationship behavior. c. low task, high relationship behavior.
b. high task, low relationship behavior. d. low task, low relationship behavior.

B: A telling leadership style is high task behavior and low relationship behavior. A high task, high relationship style is called a selling leadership style. A low task and high relationship style is called a participating leadership style. A low task and low relationship style is called a delegating leadership style. HERSEY AND BLANCHARD'S SITUATIONAL THEORY

18

A nursing group has been very successful in achieving its goals even though the group has lacked leadership. Which of the following factors is probably most responsible for the group’s success in goal achievement?
a. Life experience c. Informal organizational structures
b. Extrinsic satisfaction d. Cohesive groups

D: Substitutes for leadership are variables that eliminate the need for leadership or nullify the effect of the leader’s behavior. These include cohesive groups, work experience, intrinsic satisfaction, formal organizational structures, professionalism, indifference to rewards, routine tasks, feedback provided by the task, rigid adherence to rules, role distance, and low position power of the leader. SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP

19

The new nurse manager of a medical unit focuses on day-to-day operations and short-term goals, while the nurse manager of the mental health unit is committed to the vision that empowers the staff. The manager of the medical unit would most likely be considered which type of leader?
a. Transformational leader c. Transactional leader
b. Charismatic leader d. Autocratic leader

C: A transactional leader focuses on operations and short-term goals. A transformational leader inspires and motivates others to excel and participate in a vision that goes beyond self-interests. A charismatic leader displays self-confidence and strength in convictions and communicates high expectations. An autocratic leader makes decisions and uses power to command and control others. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY

20

The nursing staff perceive the newly hired Chief Nurse Administrator as a leader who is committed to a vision that empowers others. The Chief Nurse Administrator is most likely employing which type of leader?
a. Transformational leader c. Transactional leader
b. Charismatic leader d. Autocratic leader

A: A transformational leader empowers others. A charismatic leader has an appeal based on personal power. A transactional leader focuses on day-to-day operations. An autocratic leader has central power and does not empower others. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY

21

The nurse manager on one of the hospital units views the staff as basically lazy and only motivated by threats and coercion. Which theory of motivation would support the manager’s beliefs?
a. Theory W c. Theory Y
b. Theory X d. Theory Z

B: The Theory X view is that in bureaucratic organizations, employees prefer security, direction, and minimal responsibility. Coercion, threats, or punishment are necessary because people do not like their work to be done. THEORY X AND THEORY Y

22

A group of new nurse managers is undergoing a series of management training sessions. Which statement by one of the nurse managers would indicate use of McClelland’s Model of Motivation? “McClelland’s Model focuses on:
a. achievement, power, and affiliation.”
b. growth needs, relatedness needs, and existence needs.”
c. collective decision making, quality circles, and mentoring.”
d. self-actualization needs, safety and security needs, and self-esteem needs.”

A: McClelland’s Model of Motivation focuses on achievement, power, and affiliation. Growth needs, relatedness needs, and existence needs are aspects of Adler’s model. Collective decision making, quality circles, and mentoring are the focus of Ouchi’s model. Self-actualization needs, safety and security needs, and self-esteem needs are reflected in Maslow’s model. TABLE 1-1 NURSING LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE ACTIVITIES

23

A nurse manager finds two employees arguing about the assigned schedule. Which role would be appropriate for the nurse manager to implement at this time?
a. Advocate role c. Decision-making role
b. Interpersonal role d. Information-processing role

C: The decision-making role of a nurse manager would include being an entrepreneur, handling disturbances, and allocating resources. The information-processing role involves managing the information that the people need. The interpersonal role focuses on functioning as a figurehead, leader, or liaison. In the advocate role, the nurse manager would focus on supporting employee rights. MANAGERIAL ROLES

24

A nurse manager who implements the bureaucratic management style will most likely do which of the following?
a. Emphasize efficiency
b. Use explicit rules and regulations for governing activities
c. View the individual worker as the source of control, motivation, and productivity
d. Expect unity of command and direction

B: Bureaucratic management focuses on the use of explicit rules and regulations for governing activities. The human relations approach views the individual worker as the source of control, motivation, and productivity. Administrative principles focus on unity of command and direction. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT

25

The nursing supervisor has traditionally made rounds at the same time each day. When the supervisor visits each unit, the staff appear to be extremely busy even when the census is very low. Today the supervisor visited a unit two hours early and found several staff members watching television and drinking coffee in the visitor’s lounge. The supervisor recognizes that the staff’s previous behavior have been a result of which of the following?
a. Coincidence c. Diligence of staff
b. Hawthorn effect d. Time management

B: Because the nursing supervisor traditionally made rounds at the same time each day, the staff members were prepared for the visit. When the supervisor arrived unexpectedly, the staff members were most likely caught off-guard. The Hawthorn effect occurs when recognition that one is being studied or observed results in a change in behavior. Coincidence, diligence of staff, and time management would not account for the dramatic change in behavior. HUMAN RELATIONS