Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (25):
A nursing instructor asks, “What are the stages of standard educational methodologies?” Which response by the student would indicate that further teaching is needed?
a. Design c. Process
b. Development d. Evaluation
C: The five stages of a standard education methodology are analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Process is not one of the stages. Implementing standard educational methodologies is a process in and of itself. TABLE 19-1 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
A clinic nurse is planning to teach a group of clients procedures for administering their own medications. The two types of objectives the nurse will use to help clarify learning include which of the following?
a. Behavioral and terminal c. Cognitive and terminal
b. Affective and sequencing d. Terminal and enabling
D: When designing educational offerings, it is important to structure the objectives around the goals for the offering. Two objectives are used to support the goals of the program/initiative. They are terminal objectives (identifies the major behavior that contributes to the achievement of the overall goal) and enabling objectives (identifies a secondary behavior that enables/contributes to the achievement of the terminal goal). TERMINAL AND ENABLING OBJECTIVES
A nursing instructor has asked a group of students to develop teaching plans for their clients according to Gagne’s nine elements. If the instructor asks the students about some of the components of Gagne’s events of instruction, which response by a student would indicate that further teaching is needed?
a. Gain attention c. Implement performance
b. Present stimulus materials d. Provide feedback
C: Gagne’s nine elements of instruction are one of the most frequently utilized guides for developing a framework for instruction. These nine elements/events of instruction are as follows: gain attention, inform the learner of the objective, stimulate recall of prerequisite learning, present stimulus materials, provide learning guidance, elicit performance (not implement performance), provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention and transfer. TABLE 19-10 GAGNE'S NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION
During an in-service program, the nurses are taught that learning can be classified according to several types of learning domains. When asked to name the domains, which responses by one of the nurses would indicate that further teaching is needed?
a. Cognitive c. Affective
b. Psychomotor d. Effective
D: A learning domain is a means of categorizing learning theories according to the primary type of learning involved. The three major types are cognitive (centers on knowledge), psychomotor (centers on skills), and affective (centers on attitude). LEARNING DOMAINS
When developing behavioral objectives, the nurse recognizes that an essential component would be which of the following?
a. Design c. Implementation
b. Performance d. Evaluation
B: A primary aspect of any learning objectives is the performance that is built into the statement. Performance is something that can be observed and measured such as “demonstrating the correct injection sites for intramuscular injections.” ESTABLISHING BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES
Some elements of taxonomies based in the cognitive domain are listed here. Which does not necessarily belong?
a. Knowledge c. Process
b. Comprehension d. Synthesis
C: The six levels of learning for taxonomies grounded in the cognitive domain are knowledge, comprehension, application (not process), analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. TABLE 19-4 TAXONOMIES OF LEARNING: COGNITIVE DOMAIN
The majority of learning theories fall into three categories. Which is correct?
a. Cognition, perception, and information
b. Psychomotor, cognitive, and affective
c. Perception, information processing, and personality
d. Behavioral, psychosocial, and affective
C: A learning style is a particular manner in which a person responds to and processes learning. Most learning style theories fall into three categories: perception, information processing, and personality. Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective pertain to learning domains. LEARNING STYLES
During which phase of learning would a nurse conduct teaching based upon the lesson plan?
a. Implementation c. Evaluation
b. Development d. Execution
A: Lesson plans provide a blueprint for the educational session and are used to implement the learning. They have been designed during the development phase, and the success of the plan will be evaluated during the evaluation phase. IMPLEMENTATION
A nurse is using Kolb’s experiential learning style (Kolb, 1984). Which of the following thinking styles would the nurse least likely employ?
a. Sensing c. Doing
b. Abstracting d. Perceiving
D: Kolb’s experiential learning style theory can be categorized as an information processing theory that emphasizes different styles of thinking. The four major thinking styles espoused in Kolb’s experiential learning style are sensing, abstracting, doing, and watching. INFORMATION PROCESSING
When establishing behavioral learning objectives, the nurse educator would consider which of the following four components?
a. Audience, behavior, condition, and degree
b. Performance, behavior, design, and condition
c. Behavior, audience, situation, and design
d. Audience, condition, design, and behavior
A: The four primary elements that should be present in all behavioral learning objectives are audience (who will perform the behavior), behavior (what they will do), condition (limitations or conditions placed on the performance), and degree (level of measurement to determine successful performance). DESIGN
A nurse educator is preparing to teach a group of nurses the use of a new piece of equipment. The nurse educator establishes the format to be used, selects strategies and media, and finalizes the teaching plan. The nurse educator would be completing which phase of the educational process?
a. Design c. Implementation
b. Development d. Evaluation
B: During the development phase of education, the following occur: format (selection and use of a framework such as Gagne’s nine events of instruction), selection of strategies (i.e., lecture, group discussion, and role-playing), selection of media (i.e., written, visual, computer-based, audio), and the finalization of the lesson plan (the structured plan for the delivery of the education is completed). DEVELOPMENT
Context analysis consists of two types of context that need to be considered and incorporated into planned instructional sessions. They are:
a. situational and presentational. c. instructional and situational.
b. learner and instructional. d. environmental and instructional.
C: One of the three major elements of any educational program is the context of the planned offering. Context is divided into two categories: instructional (the conditions/environment under which the education will occur, for example, the location and time) and situational (the situation that created the need for the education). CONTEXT ANALYSIS
Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory divides learners into several different types such as verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, spatial, and naturalist. Teaching considerations that might be used for an intrapersonal learner type might be:
a. graphics or visual models. c. talking in a group.
b. listening to music. d. reflecting upon a specified situation.
D: Another perception-based learning theory is Gardner’s multiple intelligences. This theory categorizes learners in eight categories according to how they best perceive their environment. Intrapersonal types of learners tend to respond to personal, inner emotions to understand themselves and others. Activities that use introspection, reflection, and/or process emotions work should be incorporated into learning plans for this particular kind of learner. TABLE 19-3 GARDNER'S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Education conducted according to a standardized structured approach is called:
a. formal education. c. methodology.
b. information processing. d. informal education.
C: Education is more effective when it is structured and presented according to a standardized approach called a methodology. Formal education is planned, structured, and targeted toward a specific topic/goal, and informal education is not as structured or organized and can be as simple as information being exchanged during a conversation. METHODOLOGY
You are in the analysis phase of developing an educational program for your clients diagnosed with diabetes. The three major elements that you will focus on during this phase are which of the following?
a. Content, process, and learner c. Process, objectives, and presentation
b. Learner, context, and format d. Context, learner, and content
D: The first phase in developing educational programs is called the analysis phase, and it consists of three primary components to be analyzed: the context (the situational context in which the need for the education arose and the instructional context in how it will be delivered), learner (who needs to be taught and what unique characteristics should be considered in delivering this information), and content (what needs to be taught/learned). ANALYSIS
During a staff development program, each nurse was asked to complete the Meyers-Briggs test of personality. The results of the test indicated that each nurse showed characteristics related to one of the four categories of types of personality traits. These four categories have been identified as which of the following?
a. Introversion-extroversion, thinking-intuition, sensing-perceiving, and sensing-judging
b. Thinking-perceiving, sensing-intuition, judging-extroversion, and feeling-introversion
c. Extroversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving
d. Verbal-linguistic, sensing-feeling, bodily-kinesthetic, and introversion-extroversion
C: Personality theories, such as the Meyers-Briggs, emphasize how personality differences influence learning. The four complementary sets of traits are extroversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. FIGURE 19-3 MEYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY DICHOTOMIES
That individuals learn best when they touch and move is a design quality for which learning theory?
a. Meyers-Briggs c. Rose’s visual-auditory-kinesthetic model
b. Gardner’s multiple intelligences d. Kolb’s experiential learning style
C: The visual-auditory-kinesthetic model (VAK) by Rose (1985) is a perception learning theory and emphasizes the relationship of the senses to learning. According to this model, kinesthetic learners learn best when they can touch and move; hence the model incorporates activities that get learners up and moving or having them physically practice what they have just learned. TABLE 19-2 ROSE'S VISUAL-AUDITORY-KINESTHETIC (VAK) MODEL OF LEARNING
Some factors that affect the success of an educational session for patients are listed here. Which does not necessarily belong?
a. Environment c. Nurse’s education
b. Patient condition d. Topic to be learned
D: Some elements that are critical to the success or failure of a patient educational session are the environment, patient’s condition, the nurse’s education, and communication skills. IMPLEMENTATION
During the evaluation phase of education, what two components are of major importance?
a. Learner evaluation and educational evaluation
b. Program evaluation and communication
c. Process evaluation and strategies for improvement
d. Focus and learner evaluation
A: Evaluation is a process by which the effectiveness of an educational session can be assessed. Two major areas in which to evaluate the education being offered are learner evaluation (whether the learner effectively processed and adopted the information presented) and educational evaluation (whether the education itself was effectively constructed and presented). EVALUATION
Nurse B has planned to instruct Mr. C, a newly diagnosed diabetic, in how to test his blood sugar. Nurse B has decided that due to time constraints she will quickly show him how to test his blood sugar, but she will not stay for a return demonstration to see if he can do this himself, due to other duties on the unit. Mr. C appears to be confused and becomes agitated halfway through the session. Which education evaluation area does Nurse B’s training session need more work on?
a. Process c. Pacing
b. Implementation d. Accuracy
C: The evaluation area of appropriate pacing was lacking in this particular example. Some questions that pertain to the pacing of an instructional session: Did the education move too fast or too slowly? Was there enough patient involvement? Was there a lack of or shortage of activities and/or practice time? The answer is yes, because she did not build in enough time to enable Mr. C to practice and reinforce the training. Accuracy focuses upon whether the information was accurate, not the pace at which it was delivered. TABLE 19-14 EDUCATION EVALUATION
According to the Institute of Medicine, what percentage of all American adults have difficulty understanding and using health information?
a. Fewer than 10 percent c. Nearly half
b. Under one-fourth d. Three-quarters
C: According to the Institute of Medicine, nearly half of all American adults have difficulty understanding and using health information. LEARNER ANALYSIS
You are planning to teach a client about her disease and decide to give her a short paper-pencil, true/false test at the end of your teaching. Which domain of learning will you be evaluating with this technique?
a. Cognitive c. Psychomotor
b. Affective d. Behavioral
A: A paper-pencil test is a tool to use when evaluating a client’s cognitive domain. The cognitive domain is centered on knowledge, or what the learner knows. LEARNING DOMAINS
The staff developer has just completed a session on cultural diversity and nursing care. One of the questions on the final exam asks the participants about their feeling related to caring for clients from different ethnic groups than the nurse’s. The staff developer is measuring which domain of learning?
a. Cognitive c. Psychomotor
b. Affective d. Effective
B: Asking the nurses about their feelings is a method used to measure the affective domain of learning. The affective domain is centered on attitude, values, beliefs, and feelings of the learner. LEARNING DOMAINS
Health literacy is best defined as which of the following?
a. Reading level of the learner
b. Learner’s ability to sign his name on a consent
c. Educational level of the learner
d. Learner's ability to read, understand, and act on health information
D: Health literacy is defined as the learner's ability to read, understand, and act on health information. Incomplete health literacy can affect anyone of any age, ethnicity, background, or education level. LEARNER ANALYSIS