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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (25):
1

While reading an article on power, a nurse would most likely hypothesize that power can be described as which of the following?
a. Authority and influence
b. Accountability and responsibility
c. Personal and professional approaches to life
d. Ability to create, get, and use resources to achieve one’s goals

D: Power is the ability to create, get, and use resources to achieve one’s goals. Power can occur at various levels, including personal, professional, and organizational. Authority, influence, accountability, and responsibility may result from power; however, these terms do not define power. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

2

One day a colleague asked you, “What made you choose nursing as a profession?” You replied that your mother and teachers encouraged you to choose this profession. Your colleague would most likely hypothesize that your mother and teachers possessed personal power because they:
a. perceived themselves as having personal power.
b. were individuals who could influence others and events.
c. had extensive buying power or wealth.
d. were individuals in powerful positions.

B: Power, regardless of level, comes from the ability to influence others and events. Personal power derives from characteristics in the individual; for example, parents and teachers are often seen as personally powerful because of the knowledge they possess and trust they generate. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

3

Your supervisor comments that you have a great deal of personal power. The supervisor’s comment is most likely related to which of your assets?
a. Decision-making ability c. Charisma when speaking to people
b. Connections to other nurses d. Expertise as a nurse

A: The personal power of nurses is evident in the decisions they make. Nurses’ sense of power is greater when they can influence events through personal effort. Connection is ultimately about building personal and professional relationships. People who are strongly connected to others experience a degree of intimacy and a level of commitment that empowers them and others. Nurses who are trusted and respected by others and are most able to exert influence over others tend to be charismatic. The knowledge and skills nurses possess is referred to as expert power. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

4

As a nurse you possess professional power. This type of power is that which:
a. comes from one’s position in a hierarchy.
b. comes from a person’s buying power or wealth.
c. is perceived by a person with extensive knowledge.
d. is conferred on members of a profession.

D: Professional power is that which is conferred on members of a profession by one another and the larger society to which they belong. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

5

As the nurse manager, you have organizational power that:
a. comes from one’s position in a hierarchy.
b. comes from a person’s buying power or wealth.
c. is perceived by a person with extensive knowledge.
d. is conferred on members of a profession.

A: Organizational power comes from one’s position in an organizational hierarchy, as well as from understanding the organizational structure and function and from being authorized to function powerfully within an organizational culture. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

6

As a new employee, you can wield influence as an expert nurse by doing which of the following?
a. Demonstrating nursing skills c. Achieving position status
b. Proclaiming yourself an expert d. Networking with expert nurses

A: There are two ways to wield the influence of an expert. One way is the demonstration of nursing skills based on one’s knowledge, skills, and abilities that one consistently demonstrates in practice settings. Second is to be introduced and promoted to a group as an expert, thus validating one’s expertise. The position a nurse holds in a group is called legitimate power. The extent to which nurses network and are connected with others having power is called connection power. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

7

Your agency hires a nurse consultant who is certified in wound care. The consultant is scheduled to work with staff nurses on methods to promote wound healing. Which type of power does the nurse consultant possess?
a. Legitimate power c. Referent power
b. Expert power d. Reward/coercion power

B: The knowledge and skills nurses possess are referred to as expert power. Since the consultant is certified in wound care, the consultant would possess expert power. SOURCES OF POWER

8

You have been appointed president of your state’s local nursing association. The power derived from this appointment is referred to as which of the following?
a. Legitimate power c. Referent power
b. Expert power d. Reward/coercion power

A: Legitimate power is power derived from the position a nurse holds in a group. As the president of the nursing association, you have legitimate power and the authority over the actions of the association. SOURCES OF POWER

9

One of the nurses on your unit serves as a member of the hospital’s budget committee. Each month the nurse updates the unit staff on issues that may affect them. This nurse possesses which type of power?
a. Expert power c. Information power
b. Connection power d. Legitimate power

C: Power is based on the information that any person can provide to the group. The extent to which nurses are connected with others having power is called connection power. The knowledge and skills nurses possess is referred to as expert power. Legitimate power is power derived from the position a nurse holds in a group, and it indicates the degree of authority. SOURCES OF POWER

10

Visible reciprocal acknowledgement of expertise among group members:
a. maintains productivity. c. balances power.
b. enhances power. d. decreases productivity.

C: Visible reciprocal acknowledgment of expertise among group members balances power and enhances productivity, while lack of reciprocal acknowledge has the opposite effect. SOURCES OF POWER

11

Reward power and coercive power are commonly used to influence others. The effective use of rewards for staff nurses is all of the following except:
a. increased salary for obtaining the next rung on the clinical ladder.
b. formal recognition before one’s nursing peers at an awards ceremony.
c. one additional paid day off for each year you are with the organization.
d. increased workload for displaying excellence in patient care outcomes.

D: Meaningful rewards exist beyond monetary ones; for example, formal and personal recognition of loyalty and commitment to the organization with more paid time off. Increased workload is not seen as a reward in most instances. SOURCES OF POWER

12

A staff nurse requests that the nurse manager promote her from the position of RN-I to RN-II. The nurse manager explains to the staff nurse that, according to hospital policy, additional experience and time on the job must be achieved before being promoted to that position. In an attempt to circumvent the manager’s power, the staff nurse approaches the Director of Nursing and requests a promotion to RN-II. Circumvention of the nurse manager’s power can cause which of the following?
a. Respect c. Knowledge
b. Tension and conflict d. Positive image

B: Circumvention of power causes tension and conflict. Circumvention of a person’s authority or position is likely to be perceived as an indication of disrespect or ignorance. Bypassing the person who is directly responsible for a situation, or who has formal access to the person who is directly responsible, reflects negatively on nurses who take their concerns to a higher level of authority without working to resolve issues at a more appropriate level. SOURCES OF POWER

13

One of the nurses recently attended a conference on best practices for nurses. Upon returning to work, the nurse shares the information with the other staff nurses. Which of the following would be a result of sharing the information from the conference?
a. Foster unsubstantiated rumors
b. Decrease organizational effectiveness
c. Weaken one’s professional connections
d. Foster improvement in overall patient care

D: Information sharing can improve patient care, increase collegiality, enhance organizational effectiveness, and strengthen one’s professional connections. SOURCES OF POWER

14

Which of the following is predominantly an intrapersonal characteristic?
a. Affiliation c. Achievement
b. Power d. Empowerment

C: The need for achievement is predominantly an intrapersonal characteristic and is motivated by one’s personal conviction of capability and competence. Affiliation, power, and empowerment are predominantly interpersonal characteristics. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

15

Nurses are empowered by:
a. the media’s recognizing them as a powerful group.
b. others perceiving them as being powerful.
c. their collective gender force.
d. self-decision making.

B: At the most basic level, nurses are empowered because they are perceived as having individual, group, and/or organizational power. Empowered nurses are likely to manifest a high level of self-awareness and self-confidence. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

16

As you approach graduation from nursing school, you will most likely begin to imagine your future in nursing in terms of which of the following?
a. The past, the present, the future
b. Joy, hardship, and dread
c. What is possible, what is probable, what is preferred
d. As a return to the past, as a global community, as a journey into space

C: There are three ways to imagine the future: 1) “What is possible?”, 2) “What is probable?”, and 3) “What is preferred?” As you approach graduation, you will most likely imagine your future with these three aspects in mind. PERSONAL POWER DEVELOPMENT

17

Nurses understand there are inherent risks in making decisions. These are all risks except:
a. there will always be more information to gather and analyze.
b. information must be researched and complete.
c. time constraints and priority setting.
d. information is never complete.

B: Information must be researched and complete is not a risk in making decisions. Effective nurses understand that time constraints and priority setting are part of decision making. There will always be more information to gather and analyze, and information is never complete. POWER AND THE LIMITS OF INFORMATION

18

The process that transforms information into power is:
a. commitment. c. critical thinking.
b. relationships. d. choice and control.

C: The critical thinking process that nurses use to gather, interpret, share, and apply information is what transforms their information into power. Power in nursing is created through the relationships nurse develop. What makes power come alive is commitment. Empowerment includes the concepts of choice and control to implement changes in attitudes, nursing practice, and health care structures. SOURCES OF POWER

19

Critical thinking leads to which type of power?
a. Information power c. Connection power
b. Expert power d. Legitimate power

B: The power of critical thinking leads to expert power. Critical thinking enables a nurse to understand more and to find better information. Nurses who influence others with the information they provide to the group are using information power. The extent to which nurses are connected with others having power is called connection power. Legitimate power is power derived from the position a nurse holds in a group, and it indicates the degree of authority. SOURCES OF POWER

20

Power struggles regarding access and distribution of resources occur when:
a. an externally competitive environment is created.
b. there is a failure to understand the role and responsibilities of others.
c. nurses have experience.
d. relationships are maintained at status quo.

B: Power struggles regarding access and distribution of resources often occur when those controlling access and distribution of resources fail to understand the roles and responsibilities of others outside their position or when they create an internally competitive work environment. The hard realities of power in relation to any profession and those who hold it have to be confronted in order for the profession to survive, much less advance. In times of rapid change, even the experienced nurse may have difficulty adjusting. REAL WORLD INTERVIEW

21

Nurses who are empowered at the personal level are likely to manifest which of the following?
a. Superiority over others
b. High level of self-awareness and self-confidence
c. Self-confidence and disapproval of others
d. Dissatisfaction with the job but satisfaction with personal life

B: Nurses who are empowered at the personal level are likely to manifest a high level of self-awareness and self-confidence. They are more likely to understand nursing as a profession because it represents a group to which they belong. DEFINITIONS OF POWER

22

As a new graduate, you decide to join a professional nursing organization. Your goal is to be affiliated with other nurses who are well-known members of this professional organization. Your belief is that you will secure which type of power by membership in the organization?
a. Legitimate c. Reward
b. Referent d. Information

B: Referent power is the power based on the trust and respect people feel about the individual, group, or organization with which one is associated. TABLE 12-1 UNDERSTANDING AND USING SOURCES OF POWER

23

During an evaluation meeting with one of the nurses, the manager compliments the nurse on the excellent care the nurse provided to the family of a terminally ill patient. The manager also indicates that the nurse will be recommended for a promotion. The nurse manager is demonstrating which of the following?
a. Reward power c. Coercive power
b. Informational power d. Referent power

A: The nurse manager is demonstrating reward power. The compliment and indication of a promotion are both types of rewards that nurses may receive. SOURCES OF POWER

24

A staff nurse is late for rounds every morning. As the nurse manager, you inform the staff nurse that continued tardiness will result in a suspension. In this instance, you are exerting which type of power?
a. Reward c. Coercive
b. Referent d. Informational

C: By threatening the staff nurse with suspension, you would be exerting coercive power. As the nurse manager, you are demonstrating your ability and authority to take disciplinary action against the staff nurse in order to influence the nurse to change the behavior. SOURCES OF POWER

25

After completing a class on nurses and the media, the instructor questions the students on methods the media can use to support nursing’s image and encourage other young people to choose nursing as a career. The instructor evaluates that further teaching is necessary when a group of students make which of the following comments? The media can:
a. acknowledge the rapidly growing nursing shortage over the next decade.
b. present nurses in roles that indicate they are handmaidens to physicians.
c. recognize nursing as one of the largest, most trusted groups in health care.
d. show nurses as decision makers, coordinators of care, and primary care providers in health care.

B: Further teaching is needed when students indicate that the media should present nurses in roles that are stereotypical. Some stereotypical roles would include nurses being subservient to physicians. The media can best support nursing by acknowledging the anticipated nursing shortage, recognizing that nursing is one of the largest, most trusted groups in health care, and showing nurses as competent health care providers. POWER AND THE MEDIA