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Flashcards in Chapter 30 Deck (24):
1

A nurse using the writings of Florence Nightingale, would most likely base nursing care on which of the following definitions of “health”?
a. the state of being free from illness or injury
b. being well and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest extent
c. a state of complete physical, social, and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
d. a state or a process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person

B: Florence Nightingale’s (Nightingale, 1969 [1860]) definition of health is “being well and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest extent.” The New Oxford English Dictionary (2205) definition of health is “the state of being free from illness or injury.” The World Health Organization’s (2006) definition of health is “a state of complete physical, social, and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” and Roy and Andrews (1999) define health as “A state or a process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person.” DEFINITION OF HEALTH

2

A nursing instructor tests the nursing student on the overarching goals for Healthy People 2020. Which response by a student would indicate that further teaching is necessary?
a. Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
b. Reduce excess spending on secondary and tertiary prevention
c. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
d. Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life

B: The overarching goals for Healthy People 2020 include: Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups; Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life; and Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all. OVERARCHING GOALS OF HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020

3

A nursing instructor has just completed teaching the nursing students about the six areas of health needed for a holistic approach to good healthy living. On the quiz the instructor asked the students to identify the six areas. Which answer by students would indicate to the instructor that additional teaching is needed?
a. physical c. professional
b. interrelationships d. emotional

B: The six overlapping areas of health that have been noted to be interrelated and necessary for a holistic approach to good healthy living are physical, social (not interrelationships, but they do fall under this category), professional, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual. AREAS OF HEALTH

4

A nursing student is asked to list some strategies to maintain physical health. Which item on the student’s list would be incorrect?
a. good nutrition c. stress prevention measures
b. physical exercise d. sleep

C: The student would be incorrect if stress prevention measures was on the list. Stress prevention measures and stress management fall under the category of emotional health. Physical health encompasses a variety of measures that can be done to enhance one’s physical health. Some of these are good nutrition, physical exercise, preventative measures (i.e., annual screening procedures, not smoking), and adequate sleep. PHYSICAL HEALTH

5

A nursing instructor asks the students to identify the benefits of healthy physical activity/exercise. Which response by a student would indicate that further teaching is necessary?
a. improve lung function
b. boost the immune system
c. improves flexibility and endurance
d. may improve mental outlook

A: Physical activity and exercise have a number of benefits that contribute to one’s health. Some of these include improving cardiovascular function (not necessarily lung function), boosting the immune system, improving flexibility and endurance, and may improve one’s mental outlook (i.e., fewer depressive thoughts, decreased anxiety, and increased mental acuity). BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

6

A nurse manager believes that a few of the staff nurses may be suffering from sleep deprivation. The nurse manager knows that nurse can be especially susceptible to sleep deprivation for several reasons. Which of the following is not necessarily one of those reasons?
a. working night shift
b. rotating shifts
c. working 10-hour to 12-hour shifts repeatedly
d. Ongoing thoughts about family and social pressures

D: Some reasons specific to nurses that contribute to sleep deprivation are working the night shift (may be difficult to sleep for long periods of time during the day), rotating shifts (with the potential for three to four weeks to adequately change sleeping patterns, rotating shifts does not usually provide enough time to adjust to the new schedule), working 10-hour to 12-hour shifts repeatedly (this does not allow for much time between shifts for sleeping), and ongoing thoughts about patients and activities at work (not thoughts about family and social pressures because these are not specific to nurses). DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

7

A new graduate nurse has been working on the medical-surgical unit for three months. When asked to take extra shifts or to rotate shifts, the nurse is more than willing. Lately the nurse has begun to wonder if he is sleep deprived at work. Some negative effects of sleep deprivation are listed below. Which of the following would the new graduate be least likely to experience if he is sleep deprived?
a. difficulty remembering and concentrating
b. increased risk of motor vehicle accidents
c. increased risk of medical errors
d. a period of 24 hours of wakefulness is equivalent to a 0.001% blood alcohol level

D: Nurses are especially susceptible to sleep deprivation due the nature of their jobs and the caring aspect of their profession. Some negative effects of sleep deprivation that nurses need to be aware of are difficulty remembering and concentrating, increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, increased risk of medical errors, and the fact that a period of 24 hours of wakefulness is equivalent to a 0.10% blood alcohol level (not a 0.001% blood alcohol level). DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

8

A nurse has been working on the same oncology unit for the past ten years. Lately the nurse’s coworkers have noticed that the nurse seems to be having trouble processing information and making decisions when caring for her patients. When asked if she needs any help, the nurse flatly denies that anything is wrong and states that she has been doing things this way for ten years and sees no reason to change. The nurse is having problem in which area of health?
a. professional c. intellectual
b. social d. spiritual

C: Intellectual health consists of the information and knowledge that you accumulate and the ability to think. Intellectually healthy people are able to clearly process information, make decisions, and learn from experience and are open to new ideas. In the situation above, Nurse X is having difficulty processing information, making decisions, and being open to new ideas or thoughts, which are all signs of poor intellectual health. Sometimes other stressors such as sleep deprivation (physical health) or excessive worrying (emotional health) can also result in these symptoms, but physical and emotional health are not part of the choices above. INTELLECTUAL HEALTH

9

A leader in a local nursing organization is giving a series of presentations on different aspects of intellectual health. This month's presentation concerns personal financial planning. The presenter will be covering some viable aspects of financial planning that can assist nurses with increasing their financial net worth for the future. Which of the following is not necessarily one of those aspects that will be covered during the presentation?
a. social security c. real estate
b. retirement funds d. moderate gambling

D: Viable financial planning is one aspect that contributes to sound intellectual health. Some means of wealth enhancement noted in the text are social security, retirement funds, real estate, and personal savings vehicles. Depending on gambling, no matter how innocent, to significantly enhance one’s wealth is not a sound way to invest hard-earned monies. PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANNING

10

A nurse is giving a presentation on emotional intelligence for a local nursing organization. The nurse will be discussing a number of the competencies that exist within emotional intelligence. Which of the following is not one of those competencies?
a. self-regulation c. self-esteem
b. self-awareness d. empathy

C: Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize your feelings and the feelings or those around you and to manage your feelings in a positive and effective manner. The five competencies of emotional intelligence are self-regulation, self-awareness, empathy, motivation, and social skills. Self-esteem may be a part of self-regulation, depending upon how much of a role it plays in everyday activities and reactions, but it is not considered one of the five primary competencies. EMOTIONAL HEALTH

11

A nursing instructor quizzes a group of students on the primary reasons for nurse workplace anger. Which reason given by one of the students would require further clarification by the instructor?
a. long hours
b. unreasonable workload
c. demeaning treatment by other health care workers
d. inadequate staffing

A: Anger is an emotion that nurses may experience in the workplace due to a number of different factors. Some of the primary reasons for nurses’ anger in the workplace are unreasonable workload, demeaning treatment by other health care workers, inadequate staffing, mismanagement of patients, lack of administrative support, feeling powerless to influence difficult situations, and feeling like scapegoats for mistakes within the system. Long hours, while a considerable problem especially when overtime becomes mandatory, can contribute to nurses’ anger but is not one of the primary reasons and can fall under the categories of inadequate staffing (hence the overtime) or feeling powerless within the system. ANGER

12

A nurse is experiencing anger in the workplace and chooses to approach the situation by trying to adapt, as suggested by McAllister & McKinnon (2009). The nurse’s selected approach to anger being felt involves which of the following?
a. Resilience c. Aggression
b. Pessimism d. Passivity

A: McAllister & McKinnon, (2009) identified resilience as an approach to anger. Resilience is the ability to cope and adapt to adversity which is a desirous quality to have in the stress filled environment of health care. Evidence is growing that the skill of resilience can be learned. WAYS TO COPE WITH ANGER

13

You are attending an in-service presentation on stress management. The presenter asks the group for techniques used to relieve stress. Which technique suggested by one of the participants would alert the presenter to the need for further?
a. Do not procrastinate. c. Be polite to all.
b. Set realistic goals. d. Keep things to yourself.

D: A variety of stress relief techniques are available today to guide nurses in stress management. Some of these are do not procrastinate, set realistic goals, be polite to all, forgive your mistakes, talk about your worries (not keep things to yourself), do a good deed, focus on the positive, and let go of the need to be perfect. TABLE 30-6 STRESS RELIEF SUGGESTIONS

14

A nurse manager is advising a recent graduate on strategies for the nurse to maintain professional health. Which of the following would not be a strategy suggested by the nurse manager?
a. goal setting
b. read fiction and nonfiction materials
c. join a professional organization
d. networking with others in the health care field

B: Professionally healthy individuals are satisfied with their career choices, are goal directed, and seek every opportunity to obtain knowledge and learn new experiences. Some strategies to enhance one’s professional health are goal setting (short- and long-term goals), read professional materials as often as possible to enhance your knowledge base (not necessarily fiction and nonfiction, but materials that pertain to your specialty area and to answer questions that arise), join a professional organization, and network with others within the health care field. WAYS TO MAINTAIN PROFESSIONAL HEALTH

15

A nurse manager is giving a presentation to the staff regarding the occupational health hazards that nurses are susceptible to. The nurse managers talks about the four primary categories of occupational health hazards. Which of the following is not one of them?
a. infectious agents c. workplace violence agents
b. physical agents d. chemical agents

C: The four categories of occupational health hazards are infectious agents (i.e., HIV and hepatitis), physical agents (i.e., radiation, noise), environmental agents (i.e., poor air quality), and chemical agents (i.e., ethyl oxide and glutardehyde). OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS COMMON AMONG NURSES

16

Strategies to help enhance the quality of one’s sleep are listed below. Which is not necessarily correct?
a. Reserve your bed for sleeping only.
b. It is okay to use alcohol to fall asleep occasionally.
c. Make sleep a priority.
d. Establish a routine before bed that is repeated nightly.

B: Some tactics that may help to enhance the quality of one’s sleep: reserve your bed for sleeping only, do not use caffeine to stay awake or alcohol to fall asleep, make sleep a priority, establish a routine before bed that is repeated nightly, try drinking warm milk or decaffeinated tea at bedtime, and if thoughts of work prevent you from falling asleep, write your thoughts down on a piece of paper and leave them there to deal with in the morning. DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

17

Some workplace strategies that nurses can utilize to help prevent fatigue are listed below. Which is not necessarily correct?
a. Stay up 24 hours when you are switching from a day to night shift.
b. Take an uninterrupted 15-minute break every four hours.
c. Rotate shift work clockwise when possible: days, evening, nights.
d. Share a ride home or use public transportation.

A: There are a number of tips to help nurses prevent fatigue in the workplace. Some of these include adequate sleep, nutrition, and proper exercise. Others include taking an uninterrupted 15-minute break every four hours, rotating shift work clockwise when possible: days, evening, nights (not staying up 24 hours when switching from day to night shift as this can be the equivalent of a blood alcohol level of 0.10%), sharing a ride home or using public transportation, joining the safety committee at work, and trying to build in a sanctioned short nap when working the night shift. DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

18

According to Dossey and Keegan (2009) nurses can gain insight into their own spirituality by which of the following?
a. reducing unnecessary time spent on play
b. preventing occupational injuries
c. expressions of creativity
d. enhancing professional goals

C: Dossey and Keegan (2009) suggested that nurses can gain insight into their own spirituality by expressions of creativity. They also suggested that insight into spirituality can be gained by exploring ways to selves through ritual, rest, and play. SPIRITUAL HEALTH

19

A nurse manager is exploring different examples of preventive measures that nurses can use to reduce injury and occupational hazards related to environmental agents? Which of the following could be one of those examples?
a. use personal protection equipment
b. assess the work area for amount of noise
c. develop standards of care for handling hazardous agents
d. be aware of bio-terrorist alert plans

D: A variety of safeguards and standards exist to aid in the prevention of workplace injury and occupational hazards. Some of these measures that relate to environmental agents: be aware of bio-terrorist alert plans, develop a violence reduction plan, rotate shifts clockwise (day to night), assess for dangerous chemicals in your workplace, and determine whether OSHA standards are in place. Using personal protection equipment is an example of a safeguard for infectious agents. Assessing the workplace for amount of noise is an example of a physical agents safeguard, and developing standards of care for handling hazardous agents is a chemical agent safeguard. TABLE 30-9 STANDARDS FOR OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS

20

Your are caring for a patient whose body mass has been recorded as 32. According to the National Institute of health, your patient is considered which of the following?
a. underweight c. overweight
b. in optimal health d. obese

C: Your client would be considered obese. A BMI of 30 and above is considered obese. Individuals with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 are considered in optimal health. Individuals whose BMI is 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight. NUTRITION

21

For the past year, you have been attending a health club and meeting with your personal trainer. The trainer compliments you on all of your achievements and tells you that your BMI is 23. Your trainer suggests that in order to maintain your weight, you need to do which of the following?
a. reduce you exercising c. 30 minutes of exercise on the weekend
b. 15 minutes of exercise everyday d. 60 minutes of exercise is needed

A: Your trainer would most likely tell you that to maintain your weight, about 60 minutes of exercise is needed. BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

22

When speaking with a tax consultant, you ask if there is a difference between the 401k and the 403b retirement plans. The tax consultant would be correct in replying which of the following?
a. There is no difference between the two plans
b. The primary difference between the two is that the 401k is a plan offered by a nonprofit organization, and the 403b is offered by a for-profit organization.
c. The primary difference between the two is that the 403b is a plan offered by a private organization, and the 401K is offered by a public organization.
d. The primary difference between the two is that the 403b is a plan offered by a nonprofit organization, and the 401K is offered by a for-profit organization.

D: The primary difference between the two is that the 403b is a plan offered by a nonprofit organization, and the 401K is offered by a for-profit organization. RETIREMENT FUNDS

23

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009), which statement is true regarding the salaries for registered nurses?
a. the lowest 10% earned less than $39,000
b. the average salary for all categories of registered nurses was $66,530
c. the top 10% earned over $150,000
d. the average salary for all categories of registered nurses was $55,830

B: In 2009, the average salary for all categories of registered nurses was $66,530. The top 10% earned over $93,000 while the lowest 10% earned less than $44,000 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009). PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANNING

24

Which of the following foods should always be included in a health diet?
a. green leafy vegetables
b. ice cream and cheeses
c. hamburgers and hot dogs
d. cold cut sandwich made with white bread

A: A healthy diet should always include green leafy vegetables. Ice cream, cheese and fried foods contain excess fat. Wheat bread should be eaten instead of white bread. NUTRITION