Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (50):
We envision that OT is a powerful, widely recognized, science-driven, and evidence-based profession with a globally connected and diverse workforce meeting society's occupational needs.
Centennial vision's 6 practice areas:
1. Children and youth
2. Productive aging
3. Mental health
4. Rehabilitation, work, and industry
5. Disabilities and participation
6. Health and wellness
This was established in 1914 in New York by George Barton, who was disabled by tuberculosis and a foot amputation.
In 1915, Eleanor Clarke Slagle developed a program to provide persons with mental or physical disabilities an opportunity to work and become self-sufficient. Where was this project located?
Hull House in Chicago
In 1938, who emphasized the need to follow patients into the community after discharge from the institution?
In the 1970's and 80's, examples of outreach in the community were:
-independent living project for the elderly
-San Francisco project for pregnant teenage girls
-prevention services for the well elderly
Three major obstacles to community based practice in the 70's and 80's:
-historical factors within the discipline
-gaps in knowledge and theory related to community based practice
In 1968, this physician strongly supported the validity of occupational therapy services in the community.
Finn, in the 1971 Eleanor Clarke Slagle lecture stated "Occupational therapists are being asked to move beyond the role of therapist to that of ______ ______."
The ability to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.
A social unit in which there is a transaction of common life among the people making up the unit.
Includes a broad range of health-related services: prevention and health promotion, acute and chronic medical care, habilitation and rehabilitation, and direct and indirect service provision, all of which are provided in community settings.
Any combination of educational and social supports for people taking greater control of, and improving their own or the health of a geographically defined area.
community health promotion
Attempt to modify the socio-cultural, political, economic and environmental context of the community to achieve health goals
community level interventions
These are often generated by leaders and members of the community and typically utilize existing community resources.
Community centered initiatives/interventions
True or false: Occupational therapists in community settings earn less than their counterparts in more traditional settings.
False- the median salary for occupational therapists in community settings was actually more than the median salary of occupational therapists across all settings.
West described 4 emerging roles that in 1967 were adding new dimensions to the traditional role of the clinically based occupational therapist. What are they?
This person provides input and shapes legislation and government policies
community health advocate
This person helps others solve existing or potential problems by identifying and analyzing issues, developing strategies to address problems and preventing future problems from occurring.
This person ensures access to community services and resources. They may also assist in the development of independent living skills.
This is a person who organizes a business venture, manages its operation, and assumes the risks associated with the business.
private practice owner/entrepreneur
This person ensures safe and effective delivery of occupational therapy services and foster professional competence and development.
This person is responsible for the overall design, development, function, and evaluation of a program; budgeting; and staff hiring and supervision.
Competencies and characteristics classified into these 5 categories used in AOTA standards for continuing competence
1. Knowledge required for multiple roles
2. Critical reasoning necessary for decision making in those roles
3. Interpersonal abilities to establish effective relationships with others.
4. Performance skills and proficiencies for practice
5. Ethical reasoning for responsible decision making
A 6th category added to AOTA Standards for Continuing Competence.
Traits, qualities, and characteristics
These following attributes and skills are recommended for those contemplating practice in community settings.
-Comfort with indirect service provision
-Program planning and evaluation skills
-Public relations skills
A conceptual framework that allows explanation and investigation of phenomena. A university recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners.
When a discipline abandons one view of the world for another, it has undergone a revolution, a drastic conceptual restructuring called what?
Paradigm shifts occur in 4 stages:
return to paradigm
Competencies and Characteristics needed for emerging practice areas.
See box 1-1 on p. 9
The first paradigm crisis is evident in 1950's when increasing pressure from medicine to be more ____ led to the question of the paradigm of occupation.
Occupational therapy practice aligned itself more closely with the medical model and adopted the medical paradigm of _____
Another term for reductionistic paradigm of the 1960's
In the 1970's practitioners dropped "______" from therapy in favor of exercise, talk groups, specialized treatment techniques, and modalities.
The reductionistic, or mechanistic, paradigm was not and is not altogether negative. What new items emerged from this approach?
New assistive devices and technology, new techniques (SI and neurodevelopmental treatment), and a greater respect from the medical community
Kielhofner suggests a new paradigm is emerging that does what?
Recommits itself to the core construct of occupation and attempts to regain the profession's identity and holistic orientation.
In community settings, OT's must modify terminology from PATIENT to what?
In community settings, OT's must modify terminology from TREATMENT to what?
In community settings, OT's must modify terminology from REIMBURSEMENT to what?
In this paradigm, professionals need to relinquish responsibility, power, and control to the recipient of services, client, or community member.
In the community, professionals function as facilitators whose role is to build and reinforce capacity and develop leadership in others. This requires what?
Ability to share successes with others
This approach focuses on the issues that are most important to the person and his or her family.
This looks at the world in terms of the inter-relatedness and interdependence of all phenomenon, and in this framework in integrated whole whose properties cannot be reduced to those of its parts
When subsystems settle into preferred, although not predictable patterns
The relation of elements to one another when they are unranked, or when they possess the potential for being ranked in a number of different ways.
This approach recognizes the complexity of the social history of health and provides a framework for assessment and intervention at various levels of systems, including individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy levels.
dynamical systems approach
This approach considers the client embedded in and interacting with a variety of environments and contexts.
This approach is based on what the client can do- assets, talents, resources, and capabilities.