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1

The five basic groups of microorganisms are:

Bacteria
Protozoa
Fungi (yeasts, molds, macroscopic fungi)
Viruses
Microscopic Algae

2

Microorganisms can be both ______ and ______.

Harmful and helpful

3

Less than ____ percent of known microorganisms cause disease

1%

4

3 examples of harmful aspects of microorganisms include:

DISEASE of plants, animals and humans
DESTRUCTION of property
ADVERSE EFFECTS on the environment due to overpopulation

5

Def: Antibiotic

Chemical products produced by one microorganism that kill or inhibit growth of another

6

Vaccines (definition)

Preparations of microbial origin administered to induce development of the immune response to protect against pathogen or toxin

7

Nitrogen Fixation (definition)

Conversion of nitrogen gas in air into forms that can be used by plants and other organisms

8

Microorganisms synthesize products for human use, including:

organic acids, amino acids and ethanol

9

Type of microorganism that decompose dead organic matter

Saprophyte

10

Saprophytes include_____ and contribute to the_______.

Saprophytic fungi, bacteria and protozoa
Carbon and nitrogen cycles

11

Microorganisms are used at sewage treatment plants to:

Decompose organic matter

12

Microorganisms are used in genetic engineering, which is:

Deliberate modification of an organisms genome by inserting DNA into bacteria

13

Biotechnological uses of microorganisms

Manufacture industrial products, foods and drugs

14

Def: bioremediation

Removal of pollutants and toxic wastes

15

Primary physical barriers to invasion of microorganism on human

Skin - epithelial tissue
Mucous membranes -that line areas that communicate with outside environment

16

Def: Microbiota

Body flora that colonize after birth and protect against disease

17

How does microbiota (body flora) protect us?

Out numbers bad microbes that could potentially harm us
Some microbiota produce chemicals that are harmful to microbes (pH balance)

18

Do ventral cavities have mucous membranes? Why or why not?

No - there should not be any microbes in these cavities! Mucous membranes are at sites where microbes threaten to get in.. not in the thoracic or abdominopelvic

19

First antibiotic was ______ and discovered by ______

Penicillin / Alexander Fleming

20

In Fleming's experiment, he used ________ on an agar plate. What resulted was a mold called ________ and a chemical called________.

Staphylococcus Aureus
Penecilium notatum
Penicillin

21

Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics can cause

Resistance

22

Vaccines may contain: (4 things)

1. Killed organisms
2. Attenuated Organisms - organisms that are alive but weakened and cannot cause disease
3. Parts of organisms - acellular (part of but not whole) and will induce a response
4. Product of an organism - inactivated toxin becomes a toxoid

23

An inactivated toxin in a vaccine becomes a

Toxoid

24

What do vaccines present to the immune system?

A foreign substance (antigen) being introduced to the immune system

25

Antigens cause immune responses that create antibodies. Antibodies are _________ to the antigen that induced a response.

SPECIFIC

26

Autoimmunity means:

that the body is attacking "self" and cannot recognize its own cell markers

27

Types of immunity

Active and Passive

28

Active immunity (def)

Long lasting - produced by the body

Natural: acquired through environmental exposure; will not always contract a disease but will be immune

Artificial: Induced by a vaccine

29

Passive Immunity (def)

Temporary - Produced by another individual (animal)

Natural: Passed down from mother to baby (breast milk)
Artificial: Injections of gamma globulins (antibodies)

30

Simultaneous active and passive immunity example

Rabies- post exposure vaccine