Flashcards in Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology Deck (45)
Using an example from a sport of your choice, identify the two types of movement that can occur at a hinge joint. (4)
• Flexion (1)
• Extension (1)
Answers must contain the movement and a relevant sporting example.
• (Flexion) lifting a hockey stick in preparation to strike the ball (1)
• (Extension) movement of the stick downwards to strike the ball (1)
Breathing enables gaseous exchange to occur at the alveoli.
Outline how two features of the alveoli assist in gaseous exchange. (2)
• Large surface area of alveoli to allow larger volumes of gases / oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and the bloodstream (1)
• Moist thin walls / one cell thick creating a short distance for diffusion / short diffusion pathway (1)
• Lots of capillaries around the alveoli so large area for gas exchange (1)
• Large blood supply to carry gases / oxygen and carbon dioxide (1)
• Movement of gas from high concentration to low concentration means there is a pressure gradient which allows diffusion to occur (1)
Name two flat bones and, using a sporting action of your choice, suggest how these bones provide protection during performance. (4)
• Cranium (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection for the brain whilst heading a football / equivalent (1 × AO2)
• Sternum (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection to the heart when controlling a football on the chest / equivalent (1 × AO2)
• Scapula (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection for the shoulder joint during contact made with another player when catching a netball / equivalent (1 × AO2)
• Ribs (1 × AO1)
• Protect the lungs during any impact with a hockey ball / equivalent (1 × AO2)
• Pelvis (1 × AO1)
• Protects the reproductive system / bladder during contact made in a rugby tackle / equivalent (1 × AO2)
(b) Outline how two of the features of the shoulder joint aim to prevent injury occurring.
- Shape of the articular surface / bones – allows bones to fit together (1)
• Ligaments – attach bone to bone / restrict movement (1)
• Joint capsule / fibrous capsule – lined with synovial membrane / encloses / supports / joints (1)
• Synovial membrane – secretes synovial fluid (1)
• Synovial fluid – provides lubrication (1)
• Cartilage (hyaline / articular) – prevents friction / stops bones rubbing together (1)
• Bursae (sacks of fluid) – to reduce friction (1)
Identify the type of synovial joint working at the shoulder. (1)
Ball and Socket
Define cardiac output. (1)
- The amount of blood ejected / pumped from the heart in one minute (1)
- Stroke volume × heart rate (1)
In 1999, Michael Johnson set a new world record for the 400m with a time of 43.18 seconds.
(a) Justify why his performance was mainly aerobic or anaerobic. (4)
• Anaerobic (1)
AO3 (sub-max 3 marks)
• 400m is a sprint event and all sprint events are anaerobic (1)
• Maximal intensity / effort and low duration means insufficient oxygen is available to work aerobically (1)
• Energy demand is higher than oxygen available, therefore anaerobic (1)
• No reduction in intensity / time to rest to repay oxygen debt (1)
• Body uses glucose → energy + lactic acid because of the lack of oxygen (1)
How is maximal heart rate calculated? (1)
Maximum heart rate (220 bpm) minus age / 220 – age (1)
Define the terms tidal volume and residual volume (2)
- Tidal volume – volume of air inspired or expired / exchanged per breath (1)
- Residual volume – volume of air left in the lungs after maximal expiration (1)
Outline what will happen to tidal volume and residual volume once exercise starts. (2)
• Tidal volume increases (once exercise starts) (1)
• Residual volume stays the same (once exercise starts) (1)
Name the two types of movement that can occur at a hinge joint. (2)
• Flexion or bending or decreasing the angle (between the bones).
• Extension or straightening or increasing the angle (between the bones).
What is meant by the term ‘fatigue’? (1)
Fatigue is a feeling of extreme or severe (physical or mental) tiredness or exhaustion. (1)
Explain how fatigue may occur and state the negative effect that it can have on a performer in a named physical activity. (2)
• over exertion.
• prolonged physical activity.
• build-up of lactic acid.
• lack of oxygen to the muscles.
• when energy demand out-strips supply. (1)
A performer may:
• lose concentration.
• be substituted.
• make unforced errors.
• not be able to (keep up with) play.
Explain the role of the skeletal system in producing movement of the body. (5)
•The skeletal system allows movement at a joint / the shape and type of the bones determine the amount of movement / short bones enable finer controlled movements / long bones enable gross movement
•The different joint types allow different types of movement / hinge joint allows extension and flexion / ball and socket allows flexion, extension, abduction and adduction and circular motion
•The skeleton provides a point of attachment for muscles / when muscles (contract) they pull the bone.
Movement is brought about by the muscular and skeletal systems working together.
Using an example, explain how muscles and bones work together to produce movement (4)
• Muscles are attached to bones via tendons.
• The origin is attached to the bone that doesn’t move / the insertion is attached to the bone that moves
• Muscles can only pull / and are arranged in pairs (antagonistic)
• One contracts (shortens or flexes or agonist or prime mover) / and one relaxes (lengthens or antagonist)
• Ligaments keep the joint stable
• Movement can only occur at a joint.
Explain what is meant by abduction. (2)
• The movement of a bone or limb / away from the body
Name two of the air passages which allow air to enter the body. (2)
Describe what gaseous exchange is and clearly state where it takes place. (3)
Oxygen being taken in / being exchanged for the carbon dioxide which is to be breathed out (2)
Explain how the heart acts as a pump in a double circulatory system. (3)
• blood enters the right atrium / dark red in colour with little oxygen
• right atrium pumps blood / into the right ventricle
• the right ventricle pumps through the pulmonary artery / to the lungs
• from the lungs the blood returns / to the left atrium
• the left atrium pumps the blood / into the left ventricle
• the left ventricle pumps the blood / into the aorta/ to the body
Name three major bones which are located in the leg. (3)
Name two muscles which are also located in the leg. (2)
Explain what is meant by extension. (2)
• The increasing of an angle/between two bones
• A joint which is straightened so that one of the bones of the joint moves/away from the other
• The action of opening/ a joint.
Give two examples of sporting situations where extension occurs. (2)
• Straightening the leg at the knee when kicking a football
• Straightening the arm at the elbow when throwing a ball
• A correct actual example such as performing a triceps extension.
Describe two places on the body where the pulse can be found. (2)
• Radial pulse/at the base of the thumb on the inside of the wrist
• Temporal pulse/just over the temple at the side of the forehead
• Carotid pulse/on either side of the neck
• Femoral pulse-in the groin.
Explain why it is important to monitor and record the pulse rate when exercising or training. (2)
• The heart rate lets you know how quickly the blood is being pumped around the body
• This is effectively providing the energy to allow the body to exercise
• There are certain zones or areas which the heart rate can be increased to or worked in
• The speed of your recovery rate is a general indicator of your fitness levels
• The quicker you are able to return your pulse to its resting rate the fitter you are
• Monitoring the rate can be used as a training indicator to make sure you are working at the correct levels
• Varying the pulse rate can be used relative to the principle of overload
• Safety aspects can be considered to ensure you are not working at too high a level.
Movement is one of the functions of the skeleton.
(i) Name three other functions.
• Blood production
• Mineral storage.
Explain the function of cartilage in relation to movement. (2)
• Cushions between bones
• To stop rubbing during movement
• Acts as a shock absorber
• Stabilises joints
• Prevents excess movement
• Allows easier movement
What is meant by the term 'aerobic'? (1)
Aerobic ‒ respiration in the presence of oxygen
Glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water
Describe a situation in which a performer would be working aerobically. (2)
e.g. activities that need long term energy systems, such as cross country running or long distance cycling