Chapter 1: The Musculo-Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Musculo-Skeletal System Deck (51)
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1

Which one of these is incorrect?

A The skeleton provides oxygen for the working muscles

B The skeleton provides protection for vital organs

C The skeleton provides structural shape and points for attachment

D The skeleton provides support

A

The skeleton provides oxygen for the working muscles

2

Which one of these causes plantar flexion at the ankle?

A Gastrocnemius

B Hamstrings

C Quadriceps

D Tibialis anterior

A

Gastrocnemius

3

Which bones are found at the shoulder joint?

A Femur and tibia

B Humerus and radius

C Scapula and humerus

D Tibia and fibula

C

Scapula and humerus

4

Which bones are found at the elbow joint?

A Femur and tibia

B Humerus and radius

C Scapula and humerus

D Tibia and fibula

B

Humerus and radius

5

Flat bones provide a protective function within the body.

Name two flat bones and, using a sporting action of your choice, suggest how these bones provide protection during performance. (4 marks)

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks.
AO1: maximum of two marks
AO2: maximum of two marks.

• Cranium (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection for the brain whilst heading a football / equivalent (1 × AO2)

• Sternum (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection to the heart when controlling a football on the chest / equivalent (1 × AO2)

• Scapula (1 × AO1)
• Provides protection for the shoulder joint during contact made with another player when catching a netball / equivalent (1 × AO2)

• Ribs (1 × AO1)
• Protect the lungs during any impact with a hockey ball / equivalent (1 × AO2)

• Pelvis (1 × AO1)
• Protects the reproductive system / bladder during contact made in a rugby tackle / equivalent (1 × AO2)

The bones can be credited for AO1 (up to a maximum of 2 marks) but the example must be applied to the protective role of the named bone during a sporting action for AO2 (up to a maximum of 2 marks). Alternative appropriate sporting actions can be credited.

6

Identify the type of synovial joint working at the shoulder.

Ball and socket

7

Outline how two of the features of the shoulder joint aim to prevent injury occurring.

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.

•   Shape of the articular surface / bones – allows bones to fit together (1)

•   Ligaments – attach bone to bone / restrict movement (1)

•   Joint capsule / fibrous capsule – lined with synovial membrane / encloses / supports / joints (1)

•   Synovial membrane – secretes synovial fluid (1)

•   Synovial fluid – provides lubrication (1)

•   Cartilage (hyaline / articular) – prevents friction / stops bones rubbing together (1)

•   Bursae (sacks of fluid) – to reduce friction (1)

Accept any other suitable explanation of features of the shoulder joint that prevent injury occurring.
Answers must refer to the shoulder joint.

8

Identify the plane and the axis about which the running action takes place at the shoulder.

• Sagittal (plane) (1)

• Transverse (axis) (1)

9

Which of the following muscle movements occur when the arm bends at the elbow?

A The biceps contract and the triceps relax

B The biceps relax and the triceps relax

C The triceps contract and the biceps contract

D The triceps contract and the biceps relax

A

The biceps contract and the triceps relax

10

Which of the following statements best describes ‘abduction’ at a ball and socket joint?

A The movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

B The movement of a limb in a complete circle at a joint

C The movement of a limb towards the midline of the body

D The movement of a limb which decreases the angle of a joint

A

The movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

11

Which one of the following statements describes the term ‘extension’ at a hinge joint?

A The movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

B The movement of a limb which decreases the angle at a joint

C The movement of a limb towards the midline of the body

D The movement of a limb which increases the angle at a joint

D

The movement of a limb which increases the angle at a joint

12

Explain how muscles and bones work together to produce movement. (4 marks)

[AO2 = 4]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks.

•   Muscles are attached to bones via tendons (1)

•   The origin is attached to the stationary bone / the insertion is attached to the moving bone (1)

•   Muscles are arranged in (antagonistic) pairs / because they can only pull (1)

•   The agonist or prime mover contracts (shortens) / and the antagonist, relaxes (lengthens) (1)

•   Movement only occurs at a joint, where two bones meet (1)

NB 1 mark for stating one muscle contracts or shortens, and the other relaxes or lengthens.

13

Explain the role of the skeletal system in producing movement of the body. (5 marks)

[AO1 = 5]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of five marks

• The skeletal system allows movement at a joint (1)

• Short bones enable finer controlled movements whilst long bones enable gross movement (1)

• The different joint types allow different types of movement (1)

• Hinge joint allows extension and flexion whilst ball and socket allows flexion, extension, abduction and adduction and circular motion (1)

• The skeleton provides a point of attachment for muscles (1)

• When muscles (contract) they pull the bone (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

14

Movement is brought about by the muscular and skeletal systems working together.

Using an example, explain how muscles and bones work together to produce movement. (4 marks)

[AO1 = 4]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks

• Muscles are attached to bones via tendons (1)

• The origin is attached to the bone that doesn’t move whilst the insertion is attached to the bone that moves (1)

• Muscles can only pull / and are arranged in pairs (1)

• One muscle contracts (shortens or flexes or agonist or prime mover) and one muscle relaxes (lengthens or antagonist) (1)

• Ligaments keep the joint stable (1)

• Movement can only occur at a joint (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

15

Movement occurs through the combination of the skeletal system and the muscular system.

State one bone, one joint and one muscle which would be involved when the arm is moved.

Award one mark for correctly stating a bone in the arm, one mark for
correctly stating a joint and one further mark for correctly stating a
muscle.

• bones ‒ humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

• joints ‒ shoulder, elbow, wrist (possible hinge in fingers)

• muscles ‒ biceps, triceps

16

Movement occurs through the combination of the skeletal system and the muscular system.

Explain what is meant by abduction. (2 marks)

Award up to two marks for correctly explaining abduction

• the movement of a bone or limb / away from the body

17

Physical activity requires movement using bones and muscles.

Name three major bones which are located in the leg.

Award one mark for each correctly named bone:

• Femur

• Patella

• Tibia

• Fibula

18

Physical activity requires movement using bones and muscles.

Name two muscles which are also located in the leg.

Award one mark for each correctly named muscle:

• Gluteals

• Quadriceps

• Hamstrings

• Gastrocnemius/calf

• Soleus.

19

Movement occurs when bones and muscles work together.

Explain what is meant by extension.

Award up to two marks for correctly explaining what extension is:

• The increasing of an angle/between two bones

• A joint which is straightened so that one of the bones of the joint
moves/away from the other

• The action of opening/ a joint.

20

Movement occurs when bones and muscles work together.

Give two examples of sporting situations where extension occurs (2 marks), and name a muscle which produces the movement that you have chosen in each example (1 mark).

(ii) Award one for each correct example given:

• Straightening the leg at the knee when kicking a football

• Straightening the arm at the elbow when throwing a ball

• A correct actual example such as performing a triceps extension.

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.


(iii) Award one mark for each correctly named muscle which must correspond to the example given

• Straightening the leg at the knee ‒ quadriceps

• Straightening the arm at the elbow ‒ triceps.

21

Movement is one of the functions of the skeleton.

Name three other functions.

Award one mark for each correct function of the skeleton other than movement.

• Support

• Protection

• Shape

• Blood production

• Mineral storage.

22

Explain the function of cartilage in relation to movement. (2 marks)

Award up to two marks for a correct explanation.

• Cushions between bones

• To stop rubbing during movement

• Acts as a shock absorber

• Stabilises joints

• Prevents excess movement

• Allows easier movement

Accept the above or any other acceptable answer.

23

Name the three major bones which are located in the arm.

Award one mark for each correctly identified bone:

• humerus

• radius

• ulna.

24

What attaches muscle to bone?

Tendon

25

What type of joint is found at the shoulder?

Ball & Socket

(accept….synovial)

(accept…. freely moveable)

26

Name two types of movement at the shoulder.

Two from…

• Flexion;

• Extension

• Abduction

• Adduction

• Circumduction

• Elevation

• Depression

• Rotation

27

In which part of the body are the following muscle groups?

(i) pectorals

(ii) quadriceps

(i) The chest.

accept… the torso/the trunk

(ii) (The front of) The thigh.

accept…upper leg/the leg

28

Give one type of joint in the body.

One from:

• ball and socket; accept “ball” or “socket”

• hinge;

• pivot;

• gliding;

• condyloid;

• saddle;

• synovial;

• freely moveable;

• fixed/immoveable.

29

Name two muscles in the upper body.

Two such as:

• biceps;

• triceps;

• pectorals;

• abdominals;

• intercostal;

• deltoids;

• trapezius;

• latissimum dorsi;

• heart/cardiac;

• bracialis.

30

Holding a balanced position is important in many physical activities.

Give one static balance and explain how the muscles work to maintain this balance. (5 marks)

one static balance to be named (1 mark).

(key is stationary)

In order to hold the body in a still position, the joint(s) must be kept in the same position (1 mark) [named joints no extra mark] by:

• the muscles working in pairs (1 mark)

• working at the joint - must work isometrically (1 mark)
not: one muscle contracts, the other relaxes - they must
maintain contraction/pull (1 mark) without changing length (1 mark)

• a muscle ‘fixing’ the joint

• standing on one leg (1 mark)

• muscles of the (upper) leg (Q+H) work together (1 mark), contract isometrically (1 mark) to hold the knee locked (1 mark)
could also apply in arm

• correct names for appropriate muscles working together (1 mark);

In a handstand this would involve muscles working at the wrist, elbow, shoulder, neck, vertebrae, hip, knee and ankle!