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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Movement Analysis Deck (35)
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1

Using an example from a sport of your choice, identify the two types of movement that can occur at a hinge joint. (4)

AO1
• Flexion (1)
• Extension (1)

AO2
Answers must contain the movement and a relevant sporting example.
• (Flexion) lifting a hockey stick in preparation to strike the ball (1)
• (Extension) movement of the stick downwards to strike the ball (1)

2

What three components do all levers have?

Levers all contain:

• Fulcrum

• Load (Resistance)

• Effort

3

For 1st, 2nd and 3rd class levers describe their mechanical advantage

1st= can have a high/low MA depending on the lengths of load/effort arms

2nd = Always have high MA

3rd = Always have low MA

4

Define Lever

Lever = a rigid bar (usually a bone) that moves around an axis (usually a joint)

5

Define Fulcrum

Fulcrum = a fixed point which a lever turns around (also called an axis or joint)

6

Define Load

Load = the weight or resistance that a lever moves

7

Define Effort

Effort = The force required to move a load, usually applied by the muscles

8

First Class Lever

Fulcrum is always in the middle, load and effort at either end

9

Third Class Lever

Effort is always in the middle, fulcrum and load at either end

10

Second Class Lever

Load is always in the middle, fulcrum and effort at either end

11

Explain Mechanical Disadvantage

Mechanical Disadvantage = when the load arm is longer than the effort arm the load is hard to move

12

Explain Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical Advantage = Levers with long effort arm and short load arm can move heavy loads with less effort eg a wheelbarrow

13

What are the Load Arm and Effort Arm?

Load Arm = distance from the load to the fulcrum

Effort Arm = distance from the effort to the fulcrum

14

What is Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical Advantage is the relationship between the length of the Load Arm and the length of the Effort Arm of a Lever System

15

Define Flexion and Extension. Which type of joint do they occur at?

Flexion = Closing the angle of a joint
Extension = Opening the angle of a joint
Both occur at hinge joint (elbow/knee)

16

Define Abduction and Adduction, which type of joint does this occur at?

Abduction = Taking arm/leg away from midline of the body
Adduction = Adding an arm/leng to midline of the body
Both occur at ball and socket (shoulder/hip) joint

17

Define Dorsi-Flexion and Plantar-Flexion. Which joint do they occur at?

Dorsiflexion = foot flexes upwards

Plantar flexion = foot flexes downwards (point toes)

Both occur at ankle joint

18

Define Rotation, which type of joint does this occur at

Rotation = Circular movement around a fixed joint

Occurs at ball and socket joints in shoulder/hip

19

Describe the Frontal Plane

Frontal Plane = divides the body into front and back halves and is concerned with side to side movement eg abduction and adduction

20

Describe the Transverse Plane

Transverse Plane = divides body into top and bottom halves, concerned with rotational movement.

21

Describe the Sagittal Plane

Sagittal Plane = divides the body into left and right halves and is concerned with forward and backward movements eg flexion and extension

22

Describe the Sagittal Axis

Sagittal Axis = Runs through the belly button from front to back, allowing abduction and adduction movements
e.g., the Cartwheel axis

23

Describe the Longitudinal Axis

Longitudinal Axis = Runs vertically through the body from head to toe allows rotation
e.g., the Twisting axis

24

Describe the Transverse Axis

Transverse Axis = Runs through hips from left to right allows flexion and extension
e.g., the Somersault axis

25

Which planes correspond to which axes?

Frontal Plane = Sagittal Axis

Transverse Plane = Longitudinal Axis

Sagittal Plane = Transverse Axis

26

Define Planes & Axes

Plane = Imaginary line that splits the body into two halves and depicts the direction of movement

Axis = imaginary line through the body around which the body parts rotate

27

Identify the plane and the axis when the arm bends at the elbow.

•   Sagittal plane (1)

•   Transverse axis (1)

28

Identify the type of lever being used at the elbow during the forehand tennis stroke.

Third class lever (1)

29

A gymnast performs a cartwheel, which plane and axis is the movement taking place about?

•   Frontal (plane) (1)

•   Sagittal (axis) (1)

30

Which one of these shows how to calculate the mechanical advantage of a lever?

A Effort arm × weight (resistance) arm

B Effort arm ÷ weight (resistance) arm

C Effort arm + weight (resistance) arm

D Effort arm − weight (resistance) arm

B Effort arm ÷ weight (resistance) arm