Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Psychology of Sport Deck (72)
Classify the skill of marathon running using each of the following classifications:
Explain your choices. (4 marks)
• Basic – repeated action which requires little thought or cognitive ability / perception (1)
• Closed skill – repeated running action largely unaffected by the environment / other runners (1) / Accept Open skill if linked to changing environment of runners moving positions / changing position on the road to avoid others)
• Self-paced – the speed / pace / rate of the movement is controlled by you / when running a long distance race, you decide how fast to run (1) / Accept externally-paced if linked to responding to a pace maker / other runners dictating the pace
• Gross – involves big movements of the body / involves the use of large muscle groups / movements when running do not tend not to rely on accuracy and precision (1)
What is meant by an ‘open skill’? (2 marks)
• A skill that is affected by constantly changing / external factors or environmental factors.
• A skill that requires adjustment / to suit the situation or weather or opponents or teammates.
Using an example, describe what is meant by a closed skill. (2 marks)
• When taking a free kick / it is unaffected by the environment or other external factors.
• When performing a forward roll / movements are always exactly the same or are not dependent upon the environment.
• When performing a golf drive / it can be executed at your own pace.
Which type of practice would be most beneficial for improving an open skill? (1 mark)
Which one of these is the ‘S’ in SMART targets of goal setting?
A - Simple
B - Sound
C - Special
D - Specific
D - Specific
Using the stages of the information processing model, analyse how a performer hits a ball or shuttlecock in a racket sport of your choice (for example squash, tennis or badminton).
(Total 6 marks)
AO1 – Knowledge of the stages of information processing, eg.
• The stages are input, decision making, output, and feedback
AO2 – Application to a performer hitting a ball/shuttlecock, eg. tennis
• Input – sight of the ball moving towards the player
• Decision making – which shot to play / movement to make
• Output – shot selected to play
• Feedback – did you play a good shot / hit the ball?
AO3 – Analysis/evaluation of the stages of information processing being used by a performer hitting a ball/shuttlecock, eg. tennis
• (Input) Information from the display – how is the opponent holding the racket / swinging the racket / how is the ball flying (with spin) / where is the ball after it has landed
• (Input) Selective attention – blocking out everything, eg. noise / other visual stimuli / other than key focus points above, ie. the ball
• (Decision making) Selection of appropriate response from memory – have you dealt with this before / have you seen this a similar type of shot before
• (Decision making) – Recall of relevant tennis shot from the long term memory / executed by short term memory
• (Output) Information sent to muscles to carry out the response – choice of shot / movement of feet / movement of racket
• (Output) Credit use of appropriate muscles for a tennis shot, ie. deltoid / pectorals
• (Feedback) Received via self (intrinsic / kinaesthetic) and / or others (extrinsic) – did you hit ball / how did it feel / where did it go / did you misread the ball
Katie is a newly qualified PE teacher at a primary school. She is using verbal guidance in her teaching.
Discuss the suitability of verbal guidance when teaching at a primary school. (4)
Not suitable (sub-max 3 marks)
• As primary school children are likely to be beginners, they would predominantly need visual guidance more than verbal (1)
• If verbal guidance is used on its own, the group might not be able to build up a mental image to understand the skills being taught / might not have seen it before as they are young (1)
• Group might not develop a ‘feel’ for moves through verbal guidance as they might need manual / mechanical as well / accept practical example, eg. haven’t experienced a somersault before (1)
• Verbal guidance could be too complex for some young children / terminology may confuse them / could cause overload of information (1)
• It could be difficult to deliver effective verbal guidance in a school sports hall so will not allow the students to learn (1)
Suitable (sub-max 3 marks)
• If the verbal guidance is simple and easy to understand for the primary children it could allow them to learn / may work in a hall that allows easy delivery of verbal guidance (1)
• If it is delivered as terminal feedback straight after the movement, this would suit young children / beginners as they can concentrate on producing a movement (1)
• Verbal commands could encourage the children to try things out and learn from each other (1)
• Students can receive feedback (verbally) that matches their ability, eg. beginner receiving positive feedback (1)
• Would work well for most primary school children if it is mixed with visual guidance / see and hear (1)
Guidance is important when coaching skills to beginners.
(a) What is meant by ‘manual guidance’? (1)
(b) Using an example from a named physical activity, describe when a coach could use manual guidance. (1)
(a) Award one mark for stating what is meant by manual guidance.
• (Coach or teacher) physically moves the body. (1)
(b) Award one mark for describing when a coach could use manual guidance in a named physical activity.
• Moving their arms when practicing a golf swing.
• Holding their body flat when learning to swim.
• Supporting a tuck somersault in gymnastics or trampolining.
Accept any other suitable response. (1)
Explain why demonstrations by a coach should be accurate when coaching beginners. (2)
Demonstrations should be accurate, so that the beginner:
• Can see what the correct skill looks like.
• Can copy the correct demonstration or technique.
• Doesn’t practise the wrong technique.
• Can see if it is attainable.
• Can pick up the relevant cues.
• Understands ‘why’ (as well as ‘how’) it is done.
• To reduce the risk of injury.
What is meant by ‘extrinsic knowledge of results’? (1)
• A form of external feedback at the end of a performance.
• The outcome of the performance or your actions.
Give one example of extrinsic knowledge of results from a named physical activity. (1)
• A shot going into the goal in hockey.
• A crowd cheering a sunken putt in golf.
• A netball team winning or losing a match.
• How long an athlete jumped in long jump or triple jump.
• Winning or losing a 100m sprint.
• A coach telling a performer that s/he was out by 5cms in archery.
What is meant by ‘intrinsic knowledge of performance’? (2)
• How well the player performed / rather than the results or outcome.
• The player can sense or feel / that the movement is correct.
State one form of visual guidance.
Explain how visual guidance may help in the learning of a new skill. (3)
• The learner can see the perfect model or correct technique.
• The learner is able to copy or repeat the skill.
• The learner forms a mental image of the skill.
• The learner picks up key cues.
• The learner understands various signals and gestures.
• Visual guidance is the most effective when learning a new skill.
Using an example, describe how a coach could use manual guidance when teaching a skill. (2)
• Coach physically moves your body (or body part) through a skill or technique / eg support with a vault or practising a golf swing.
Using an example, explain how ‘intrinsic knowledge of performance’ is different from ‘extrinsic knowledge of results’. (4)
• Intrinsic knowledge of performance – form of internal feedback during a performance or how well the player feels or senses they are performing.
• Eg a tennis player hitting the ball feels that good contact is made (hitting the sweet spot).
• Extrinsic knowledge of results – a form of external feedback at the end of a performance or the outcome of the performance.
• Eg a tennis player sees the ball land in the court / they win the point / the crowd cheers / winning or losing / success or failure.
Which one of these is an example of intrinsic motivation when learning to swim? (1)
A Enjoying the swimming lessons
B Moving on to the next swimming level
C Receiving badges for distances swam
D Receiving praise from the swimming teacher
A Enjoying the swimming lessons
Which one of these types of feedback should coaches avoid using with a beginner? (1)
B Knowledge of results
Define arousal. (1)
A readiness / state of alertness (1)
Physical and mental state varying from deep sleep to intense excitement (1)
Name two stress management techniques and explain how they could be used to control arousal in named sporting activities of your choice. (4)
• Deep breathing (1)
• Mental rehearsal (1)
• Visualisation (1)
• Imagery (1)
• Positive self-talk (1)
Technique must be explained in relation to a named sporting activity
• Deep breathing to reduce heart rate / to reduce nervous feeling before hitting a golf ball off the tee (1)
• Mental rehearsal to picture the perfect performance / feeling of how to kick a conversion in rugby (1)
• Visualisation to picture an aspect of performance / focus on how that performance should look prior to facing a bowler in cricket (1)
• Imagery to imagine oneself in a calm / relaxing place before attempting a putt in golf (1)
• Positive self-talk to give yourself positive instructions allowing you to remain focused on the task / to motivate / to reassure before taking a penalty in football (1)
Explain the difference between direct aggression and indirect aggression in physical activity and sport.(2)
• Direct aggression is aimed directly at other players / physical contact with others (1)
• Indirect aggression is aimed at an object to gain an advantage (1)
Describe how direct aggression may be used to improve performance.
Use an example in your answer. (2)
• Tackle in rugby (1)
• To stop the player from running with the ball (1)
• Tackle in football (1)
• To win the ball off the opposition (1)
Describe how indirect aggression may be used to improve performance.
Use an example in your answer. (2)
• Bowler in cricket bowling a bouncer (1)
• To intimidate batsman (1)
• Smashing a shuttlecock hard (1)
• To get it to the floor quicker / win the point (1)
Evaluate the use of a trophy as a form of extrinsic motivation. (3)
• Trophy is given once per year so is not overused and therefore does not undermine intrinsic motivation (1)
• The feeling of pride / accomplishment over a long season to win the trophy may well be an effective motivator (1)
• The extrinsic reward of the trophy combined with intrinsic drive can work well together (1)
• The trophy on its own may not be a big enough motivator for some (1)
• Intrinsic motivation (drive) is generally deemed to be more powerful than extrinsic so performers will still need intrinsic reasons (as well as the trophy) (1)
Explain what sports would suit the following personality types:
• extrovert. (2)
• Introverts tend to play sports that require concentration / precision (fine skill control) is required / low levels of arousal required, eg. archery (or any other suitable example) (1)
• Extroverts tend to play / do sports that are fast paced / concentration may need to be low / gross skills are used, eg. rugby league (or any other suitable example) (1)
State and describe one way in which a gymnast's shy personality could have a negative effect on their performance in a competition. (2)
• Doesn’t like mixing with others / may avoid training camps so limiting improvements.
• Lower level of confidence / not willing to attempt difficult moves in competitions.
• Performing in front of others or being nervous / may result in mistakes.
• Reluctant to ask for help / may hinder progress or ability.
What is meant by the term 'motivation'? (1)
• Motivation is the drive to succeed or the desire (want) to achieve something
Explain how motivation can be used to improve performance in a physical activity. (2)
• Motivation focuses the performer or improves concentration / which allows the performer to perform more accurately
• Motivation makes the performer try harder / are more likely to succeed.
Which one of the following activities would be most suitable for an introvert? (1)
B Cross country running
B Cross country running