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Flashcards in Chapter 1 + Basics Deck (68):
1

Absolute location

Defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude.

2

Absolute distance

Can be measured on a straight line: distance between point A and point B.

3

Agricultural destiny

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

4

Arithmetic destiny

The total number of people divided by total land area

5

Cartogram

Uses simplified geometries/shapes to represent real world places.

6

Cartography

The science of making maps

7

Choropleth maps

Express the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations. There is a key/legend explaining what each color represents.

7

Concentration

The spread of something over a given area

8

Connections

Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space

8

Contagious diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population

9

Cultural ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human environment relationships

9

Cultural landscape

Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group

10

Distance-Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin

11

Distribution

The arrangement of something across earths surface

12

Dot distribution map

Use dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature.

13

Environmental determinism

19th-and early 20th century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was there for the study of how physical environment caused human activities.

14

Equator

Zero attitude. The north and south poles are 90° latitude.

15

Expansion diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.

16

Destiny

Frequency with which something exists within the given unit of area

16

Diffusion

The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another overtime

16

Formal region (uniform)

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

17

Flow- line maps

Use lines of varying thickness to show the direction and volume of a particular geographic movement patterns.

19

Friction of distance

When the length of distances becomes a factor that hinders the interaction between two points this is known friction of distance.

20

Functional region (nodal)

Area organized around a node or focal point

21

GIS (Geographic information system)

A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data

22

GPS (Global positioning system)

A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers

23

Globalization

Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope

25

Hierarchical diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to another person or place

26

Human geography

Study of where and why human activities are located where they are

27

International date line

In art that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to void dividing land areas. When you cross the international date line heading east(toward America), The clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go West(toward Asia), The calendar moves ahead one day.

28

Hearth

The region from which innovative ideas originate

29

Isoline Map

Data values between points across a variable surface. Between point A and point B a series of contour lines can be drawn to show the change in data between the two points

30

Land ordinance of 1785

A law that divided much of the United States into two townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers

31

Latitude

Numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels Drawn a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator

32

Legend

Or key explains the symbols or dots of a classifications or colors on the map

34

Location

Position of anything on Earth surface

35

Longitude

Numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on the globe and measuring distance east to west of the prime meridian

36

Map

Two dimensional, or flat, or a representation of earths surface or a portion of it

37

Meridian

An arc drawing on a map between the north and south poles

38

Parallel

Circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians

39

Pattern

The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study

40

Physiological destiny

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is the land suitable for agriculture

41

Prime meridian

The Meridian that designated as 0° longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.

43

Place

Specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character

44

Projection

This system used to transfer locations from Earth surface to a flat map

45

Region

An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features

46

Relocation diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another

47

Remote-sensing

The acquisition of data about earths surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from another long-distance methods

48

Resource

Substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use

49

Scale

Generally, the relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole; specifically, the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth surface

50

Section/Township

Section; Square normally 1 mile on the side. The land ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
Township; A square normally 6 miles on the side. The land ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into series of townships

51

Site

The physical character of a place

52

Situation

Location of a place relative to another place

53

Space

The physical gap or interval between two objects

54

Space-time compression

The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

55

Stimulus diffusion

Spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

56

Toponym

Name given to proportion of earths surface

57

Transnational corporation

A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where it's headquarters or shareholders are located

58

Vernacular region

An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity

59

Mercator projection

Shape is distorted very little, direction is consistent, and the map is rectangular, flat, and has a grid/graph look. Great disadvantage is the land area is grossly distorted towards the poles-- look much larger than they actually are

60

Relative location

Refers to the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature.

61

Robinson projection

Useful for displaying information across the oceans. It's major disadvantage is that by allocating space to the oceans, the land areas are much smaller. The world is presented with rounded look on the edge

62

Thematic map

A number of different map types can be grouped under this heading. Each one expresses a particular subject and does not show land forms for other features: chloropleth, isoline, dot distribution, flow-line, and cartograms

63

Tobler's law

All places are interrelated but closer places are more related than further ones.

64

Sequent occupancy

The succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a places history. In many places there are several different historical place-specific culture, society, politics, and economy.

65

Topographic maps

Show the lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with Road, building, River, and other natural landscape features. These maps are highly accurate in terms of location and topography. Are used for engineering surveys and land navigation, especially wilderness areas.

66

Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives

67

Functional region

An area organized around a node or focal point