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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Population Deck (37):
1

Agricultural revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

2

Arithmetic density

The total number of people divided by the total land area

3

Cario conference

United Nations held an international conference on population in 1994 in Cario, Egypt. It's resulting program of action is the steering document for the United States

4

Carrying capacity

The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area/country can support

5

Agricultural density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

6

Child mortality rate

Annual number of deaths of children under the age of five compared with total live births

8

Cornucopians

People that believe our supply of resources is basically infinite

9

Census

A complete enumeration of a population

12

Crude birth rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every thousand people alive in society

13

Crude death rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for everyone thousand people alive in society

14

Demographic transition

A process with several stages and every country is in one of them and it has to do with population

15

Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics

16

Dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in labor force

17

Ester Boserup

A woman scientist/geographer who believes that human growth stimulates the birth of people who come up with a strategy/ingenuity that will ensure that food supplies do not run out.

18

Doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase

19

Ecumene

The portion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement

20

Gravity model

Interaction is proportional to the multiplication of two populations divided by the distance between them (distance decay)

21

Epidemiologic transition

Distinctive causes of death in each stage of demographic transition

22

J-curve

This is when the projection population show exponential growth sometimes shaped like a J

23

Epidemiology

Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence distribution and control of diseases that are prevalent among the population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality

24

Natalist: Pro and con

A pro-natalist encourages childbearing. A con-natalist leaves that there needs to be limits placed on the number of children per couple

27

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transforms the process of manufacturing goods

28

Infant mortality rate (IMR)

The total number of deaths in a year amount infants 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society

30

Population agglomeration

Cities that are 1 million or over in population

31

Neo-malthusians

Argue against cornucopians. They believe the ideas of Thomas Matheus. Population can grow faster than food production which could result in starvation if human growth is not limited

32

Life expectancy

The average number of years and individual can be expected to live given current social economic and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live

33

Medical revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America Asia and Africa. Improve medical practices has illuminated many of the traditional causes of death in poor countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives

35

Natural increase rate (NIR)

The percentage growth of a population in a year computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate

36

S-curve

Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards on a graph of population. So names for its shape as the S

37

Thomas Malthus

An Englishman who wrote an essay in the 1800s regarding population. He brought up the point that we May be running out of supplies because of our exponentially growing population

39

Overpopulation

The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living

40

Pandemic

Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and effects of very high portion of the population

41

Physiological density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land

43

Population Pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex

45

Sex ratio

The number of males per hundred females in the population

47

Total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

48

Zero population growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero