Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Biological Organization Deck (56):
Which domain(s) include single cell organisms without a nuclear membrane?
Bacteria and Archaea
Which domain(s) include cells with nuclear membrane?
The domain bacteria includes everything that ends in -bacteria (Green nonsulfur bacteria, Gram+ bacteria, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, flavobacteria) AND what else?
Archaea includes what?
METHANO- : -sarcina, -bacterium, -coccus
THERMO- : -proteus, -coccus
PYRODICTIUM & HALOPHILES
Eukarya includes what?
Animals, plants, fungi, slime molds, entamoebae, ciliates, flagellates, trichomonads, diplomonads, microsporidia
What's the cell size of prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells include which domains?
Bacteria & archaea (typically single-cell microorganisms)
What's the purpose of flagella and pili?
Flagella for mobility and pili for adhesion
What is plasma membrane and and layers surrounding the plasma membrane called? It can be formed from what?
Can be formed from membranes and peptidoglycans
What is enclosed by plasma membrane? What does it include?
Includes cytosol, nucleoid, cytoskeleton
Aqueous solution containing biomolecules in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Genetic material of prokaryotic cells, no membrane
Made of protein, provides structure and organization to cytoplasm, is dynamic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Supports cell, aids in movement of organelles
Protein filaments forming a meshwork
What's the function of the ribosomes?
They synthesize proteins from mRNA
What's the most studied bacterium? What's the size and how many ribosomes does it contain?
~ 2 micrometers long x 1 micrometers in diameter
Contains 15,000 ribosomes
What's the size of eukaryotic cells?
Outer membrane of eukaryotic cells is a dynamic structure of what?
Lipids and proteins
What contains the genetic material and is enclosed by a membrane in eukaryotic cells
What is enclosed by the outer membrane in eukaryotic cells?
Includes cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton
Enclosed by inner membranes in eukaryotic cells?
Not found in prokaryotic cells!
what segregates chromatin (DNA+protein) from cytoplasm?
What separates the cell from the environment, regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell?
What oxidizes fuels to produce ATP?
What is the site of much protein synthesis?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis?
What is the site of lipid synthesis and drug metabolism?
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
What processes, packages, and targets proteins to other organelles or for export?
What shuttles lipids and proteins between ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane?
What degrades intercellular debris?
What oxidizes fatty acids?
What harvests sunlight, produces ATP and carbohydrates?
What temporarily stores carbohydrate products of photosynthesis?
Site of light-driven ATP synthesis
Provides shape and rigidity; protects cell from osmotic swelling
Degrades and recycles macromolecules, stores metabolites
Provides path between two plant cells
Contains enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle
Name the 3 types of protein filaments
Size of actin filaments and what it is made of
Made from G-actin
Size of intermediate filaments and what it is made of
Made from α-keratin
Size of microtubules and what it is made of
Made from tubulin
What did Miller-Urey experiment do?
Sparked a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, H2S, and H2 to yield a lot of different things including glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid
What is the mass % of iron in men and women?
Men: 3.8 g
Women: 2.3 g
4 major classes of biological macromolecules?
Nucleic acids (DNA)
Polysaccharides (bacterial surface)
Function of Nucleic acids
Store and transmit information
Function of proteins
Structure & catalysis
Function of lipids
Membranes & energy storage
Function of polysaccharides
Energy storage, structure, surface recognition
Carbon can form single bonds with _______, ________, and _________, and form single and double bonds with _______ and _________
Amount of energy in a reaction at constant temperature and pressure
Gibbs Free Energy, G
Heat of a reaction reflecting the number and kind of chemical bonds in reactants and products
Quantitative expression of randomness or disorder in a system
Change in free energy formula
∆G = ∆H - T∆S
The set of metabolic pathways, requiring energy, construct molecules from smaller units
The set of metabolic pathways that breakdown molecules into smaller units and release energy