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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Biological Organization Deck (56):
0

Which domain(s) include single cell organisms without a nuclear membrane?

Bacteria and Archaea

1

Which domain(s) include cells with nuclear membrane?

Eukarya

2

The domain bacteria includes everything that ends in -bacteria (Green nonsulfur bacteria, Gram+ bacteria, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, flavobacteria) AND what else?

Thermotogales

3

Archaea includes what?

METHANO- : -sarcina, -bacterium, -coccus
THERMO- : -proteus, -coccus
PYRODICTIUM & HALOPHILES

4

Eukarya includes what?

Animals, plants, fungi, slime molds, entamoebae, ciliates, flagellates, trichomonads, diplomonads, microsporidia

5

What's the cell size of prokaryotic cells?

1-10 micrometers

6

Prokaryotic cells include which domains?

Bacteria & archaea (typically single-cell microorganisms)

7

What's the purpose of flagella and pili?

Flagella for mobility and pili for adhesion

8

What is plasma membrane and and layers surrounding the plasma membrane called? It can be formed from what?

Cell envelope
Can be formed from membranes and peptidoglycans

9

What is enclosed by plasma membrane? What does it include?

Cytoplasm
Includes cytosol, nucleoid, cytoskeleton

10

Aqueous solution containing biomolecules in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Cytosol

11

Genetic material of prokaryotic cells, no membrane

Nucleoid

12

Made of protein, provides structure and organization to cytoplasm, is dynamic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Supports cell, aids in movement of organelles

Protein filaments forming a meshwork

Cytoskeleton

13

What's the function of the ribosomes?

They synthesize proteins from mRNA

14

What's the most studied bacterium? What's the size and how many ribosomes does it contain?

E.Coli
~ 2 micrometers long x 1 micrometers in diameter
Contains 15,000 ribosomes

15

What's the size of eukaryotic cells?

5-100 micrometers

16

Outer membrane of eukaryotic cells is a dynamic structure of what?

Lipids and proteins

17

What contains the genetic material and is enclosed by a membrane in eukaryotic cells

Nucleus

18

What is enclosed by the outer membrane in eukaryotic cells?

Cytoplasm;
Includes cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton

19

Enclosed by inner membranes in eukaryotic cells?
Not found in prokaryotic cells!

Organelles

20

what segregates chromatin (DNA+protein) from cytoplasm?

Nuclear envelope

21

What separates the cell from the environment, regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell?

Plasma membrane

22

What oxidizes fuels to produce ATP?

Mitochondrion

23

What is the site of much protein synthesis?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

24

What is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis?

Nucleolus

25

What is the site of lipid synthesis and drug metabolism?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

26

What processes, packages, and targets proteins to other organelles or for export?

Golgi Complex

27

What shuttles lipids and proteins between ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane?

Transport vesicles

28

What degrades intercellular debris?

Lysosomes

29

What oxidizes fatty acids?

Peroxisome

30

What harvests sunlight, produces ATP and carbohydrates?

Chloroplast

31

What temporarily stores carbohydrate products of photosynthesis?

Starch granule

32

Site of light-driven ATP synthesis

Thylakoids

33

Provides shape and rigidity; protects cell from osmotic swelling

Cell wall

34

Degrades and recycles macromolecules, stores metabolites

Vacuole

35

Provides path between two plant cells

Plasmodesmata

36

Contains enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle

Glyoxysome

37

Name the 3 types of protein filaments

Actin filaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

38

Size of actin filaments and what it is made of

6 nanometers;
Made from G-actin

39

Size of intermediate filaments and what it is made of

10 nanometers;
Made from α-keratin

40

Size of microtubules and what it is made of

23 nanometers;
Made from tubulin

41

What did Miller-Urey experiment do?

Sparked a mixture of CH4, NH3, H2O, H2S, and H2 to yield a lot of different things including glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid

42

What is the mass % of iron in men and women?

Men: 3.8 g
Women: 2.3 g

43

4 major classes of biological macromolecules?

Nucleic acids (DNA)
Proteins (hemoglobin)
Lipids (phosphatidylcholine)
Polysaccharides (bacterial surface)

44

Function of Nucleic acids

Store and transmit information

45

Function of proteins

Structure & catalysis

46

Function of lipids

Membranes & energy storage

47

Function of polysaccharides

Energy storage, structure, surface recognition

48

Carbon can form single bonds with _______, ________, and _________, and form single and double bonds with _______ and _________

Hydrogen
Sulfur
Phosphorus

Oxygen
Nitrogen

49

Amount of energy in a reaction at constant temperature and pressure

Gibbs Free Energy, G

50

Heat of a reaction reflecting the number and kind of chemical bonds in reactants and products

Enthalpy, H

51

Quantitative expression of randomness or disorder in a system

Entropy

52

Change in free energy formula


∆G = ∆H - T∆S

53

The set of metabolic pathways, requiring energy, construct molecules from smaller units

Anabolism

54

The set of metabolic pathways that breakdown molecules into smaller units and release energy

Catabolism

55

What is the RNA World Hypothesis?

That DNA was made from RNA, that RNA came first