Lecture 4 - Amino Acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 - Amino Acids Deck (39):
0

Creates a complementary RNA copy (mRNA) of a sequence of DNA (gene).

Transcription

1

A process where mRNA is decoded by the ribosome and tRNA is used to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein

Translation

2

What defines the function of the proteins?

3D structure of proteins

3

Molecules that contain both acidic and basic groups and will exist mostly as zwitterions in a certain range of pH

Ampholyte molecules

4

What is the charge on an amino acid dependent on?

The pH of the solution

5

What is the simplest amino acid?

Glycine

6

Ways to classify amino acids include what?

Size and shape
Charge(s)
Polarity
Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity
Aromaticity
Conformation
Propensity to adopt a particular conformation in proteins

7

How to read the CORN law?

Looking along the H-C (alpha) bond, with H atom closest to you and reading clockwise, the groups attached to the alpha C spell CORN

8

Name the amino acids with nonpolar, aliphatic R groups

Glycine
Alanine
Proline
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Methionine

9

Which amino acids tend to cluster together on the inside of proteins, stabilizing protein structure via hydrophobic interactions?

Ala
Val
Leu
Ile

10

Name the amino acids with aromatic R groups

Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Tryptophan

11

Name the amino acids with polar, uncharged R groups

Serine
Threonine
Cysteine
Asparagine
Glutamine

12

Which amino acids ionizes the side chain at relatively high pH?

Cysteine

13

Name the amino acids with positively charged R groups
They are the basic amino acids

Lysine
Arginine
Histidine

14

Name the amino acids with negatively charged R groups
They are the acidic amino acids

Aspartate
Glutamate

15

Human diets must include adequate amounts of which 9 amino acids?

Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine

16

Which amino acids can cysteine and tyrosine partially meet the need for?

Cysteine = methionine
Tyrosine = phenylalanine

17

Name the conditionally essential amino acids

Arginine
Cysteine
Glutamine
Glycine
Tyrosine

18

Which two essential amino acids are poorly represented in most plant proteins?

Lysine
Tryptophan

19

Characteristics of alanine

Ala
A
Hydrophobic

20

Characteristics of arginine

Arg
R
Free amino group makes it basic and hydrophilic

21

Characteristics of asparagine

Asn
N
Carbohydrate can be covalently linked to its -NH

22

Characteristics of aspartic acid

Asp
D
Free carboxyl group makes it acidic and hydrophilic

23

Characteristics of cysteine

Cys
C
Oxidation of their -SH groups link 2 Cys (S-S)

24

Characteristics of glutamic acid

Glu
E
Free carboxyl group makes it acidic and hydrophilic

25

Characteristics of glutamine

Gln
Q
Moderately hydrophilic

26

Characteristics of glycine

Gly
G
So small it is amphiphilic (can exist in any environment)

27

Characteristics of histidine

His
H
Base/acid and hydrophilic

28

Characteristics of isoleucine

Ile
I
Hydrophobic

29

Characteristics of leucine

Leu
L
Hydrophobic

30

Characteristics of lysine

Lys
K
Strongly basic and hydrophilic

31

Characteristics of methionine

Met
M
Hydrophobic

32

Characteristics of phenylalanine

Phe
F
Very hydrophobic

33

Characteristics of Proline

Pro
P
Causes kinks in the chain

34

Characteristics of serine

Ser
S
Carbohydrate can be covalently linked to its -OH

35

Characteristics of threonine

Thr
T
Carbohydrate can be covalently linked to its -OH

36

Characteristics of tryptophan

Trp
W
Scarce in most plant proteins

37

Characteristics of tyrosine

Tyr
Y
-OH group makes it moderately hydrophilic

38

Characteristics of valine

Val
V
Hydrophobic