Chapter 1 Body Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Body Organization Deck (32):
1

Anatomy

-the study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts

2

Physiology

-the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts

3

Superior

Towards the head

4

Inferior

Towards the feet

5

Proximal

Toward or nearest the trunk of the body, or nearest the point of origin of one of its parts

6

Distal

Away from, or farthest from the trunk or the point of origin of a body part

7

Body cavities

(Ventral body cavities)
THORACIC cavity
-mediastinum: heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, blood vessels
-pleural cavities: lungs
ABDOMINOPELVIC cavity
-abdominal cavity: liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, parts of large intestine
-pelvic cavity: lower (sigmoid) colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
(Dorsal body cavities)
-cranial cavity: brain
-spinal cavity: spinal cord

8

Abdominopelvic regions

-four quadrants (RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ)
-nine regions

9

The word "decubitus" means

Lying down

10

A radiographic ____ describes the path of the x-ray beam

Projection

11

For a posteroanterior projection of the chest, the patient would be facing ____ from the detector

Away from

12

A patient positioned in an RAO would have their ______ shoulder in contact with the table

Right

13

The knee is _______ to the ankle (proximal or distal)

Proximal

14

The shoulders are (distal/lateral) to the sternum

Lateral

15

The lungs are contained within the (pleural/peritoneal) cavities

Pleural

16

The abdominal cavity is physically separated from the pelvic cavity (true/false)

False

17

The peritoneal membrane is a (serous/mucous) membrane

Serous

18

The left iliac region is inferior to the left hypochondriac region (true/false)

True

19

Trendelenberg position

A recumbent position with the body tilted with the head lower than the feet

20

Fowlers

A recumbent position with the body tilted with the head higher than the feet

21

Membrane

-thin, sheet like structure
-cover and protect the body surface, line body cavities, and cover the inner surfaces of the hollow organs such as the digestive, reproductive, and respiratory passageways
-anchor organs to each other or other bones, cover internal organs
-some secrete lubricating fluid
Two major categories
1. Epithelial membranes
2. Connective tissue membranes

22

Epithelial membranes

-composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of fibrous connective tissue
-there are 3 types of epithelial tissue
1. Cutaneous membrane
2. serous membrane
3. Mucous membranes

23

Connective tissue membranes

-composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue
-no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane

24

Cutaneous membrane ( a type of epithelial membrane)

-aka skin
-primary organ of the integumentary system
- has a superficial layer of epithelial cells and an underlying layer of supportive connective tissue

25

Serous membranes (a type of epithelial membrane)

-found only on surfaces within closed cavities
-composed of two distinct layers of tissue; the epithelial sheet is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelium. The connective layer forms a very thin, glue like basement membrane that holds and supports the epithelial cells
-a single, continuous sheet of tissue covering two different surfaces (this arrangement results in two distinct layers of serous membranes)
- 1st type lines body cavities (parietal layer), like wallpaper covers the walls of a room
- 2nd type covers the organs within those cavities (visceral layer)

26

In the thoracic cavity the serous membranes are called?

Pleura!

27

In the abdominal cavity the serous membranes are called?

Peritoneum!

28

Serous membranes continued!

-secrete a thin, watery fluid that helps reduce friction and serves as a lubricant when organs rub against one another and against the walls of the cavities that contain them

29

Pleurisy

-very painful pathological condition characterized by inflammation of the serous membranes (pleura) that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs
-pain is caused by irritation and friction as the lungs rub against the walls of the chest cavity

30

Mucous membranes (a type of epithelial membrane)

-line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior ex lining the respiratory, digestive tracts etc
-epithelial component varies, depending on its location and function (in most cases stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia)
-epithelial cells of most mucus membranes secrete a thick, slimy material called mucus that keeps the membranes moist and soft
-fibrous connective tissue underlying the epithelium is called the lamina propria

31

Mucocutaneous junction

-transitional area that serves as the point of 'fusion' where skin and mucous membranes meet
-such junctions lack accessory organs such as hair or sweat glands
-generally moistened by mucous glands within the body orifices or openings, where these junctions are located
-ex eyelids, lips, nasal openings etc

32

Connective tissue membranes

-no epithelial components
-the synovial membranes lining the joint capsules that surround and attach the ends of articulating bones in moveable joints are classified as connective tissue membranes
-these membranes secrete synovial fluid
-the membrane itself, with its synovial fluid, helps reduce friction between the opposing surfaces of bones in moveable joints
-synovial membranes also line the small, cushion like sacs called bursae found between moving body parts