Outcome 6 Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 6 Cardiovascular System Deck (59):


-triangular organ
-located between lungs in lower portion of mediastinum
-two thirds of the mass to left of the body midline and one third to the right
-apex is on the diaphragm
-shape and size roughly like a closed fist



- ❤️ is positioned in the thoracic cavity
-between the sternum in the front and bodies of the thoracic vertebra behind
-can be compressed or squeezed by application of pressure to lower portion of body of sternum using the heel of the hand


Heart chambers

-two upper chambers are called R&L ATRIA (receiving chambers)
-two lower chambers are called R&L VENTRICLES (discharging chambers)


What are the atria

-receiving chambers


What are the ventricles

-discharging chambers


Atria are _____ than the ventricles, and their walls are ____ and ____ ____

Atria are SMALLER than the ventricles, and their walls are THINNER and LESS MUSCULAR


Wall of each heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called _____




-smooth lining of ❤️chambers
-inflammation of endocardium is called endocarditis
-inflamed endocardium can become rough and abrasive and thereby cause a thrombus



-a two-layered fibrous sac with a lubricated space between the two layers
-INNER LAYER: visceral pericardium or epicardium (covers the ❤️the way an apple skin covers and apple)
-OUTER LAYER: parietal pericardium (fits around the ❤️like a loose fitting sac, allowing enough room for the ❤️ to beat, covers the surface)



-inflammation of the pericardium


Cardiac tamponade

-compression of the ❤️caused by fluid building up between the visceral and parietal pericardium


Contraction of the ❤️is called



Relaxation of the ❤️ is called



The two pericardial layers slide against each other without friction when the ❤️ beats because

-these are serous membranes
-moist surfaces


Pericardial effusion

-pericardial fluid, pus or blood (in case of an injury) may accumulate in the space between the 2 pericardial layers and impair the pumping action of the ❤️


❤️ valves

-keep blood flowing through the ❤️; prevent back flow
-tricuspid: at the opening of the right atrium into the ventricle
-bicuspid (mitral): at the opening of the left atrium into the ventricle
-pulmonary semilunar: at the beginning of the pulmonary artery
-aortic semilunar: at the beginning of the aorta


Atrioventricular (AV) valves

-tricuspid: at the opening of the right atrium into the ventricle
-bicuspid (mitral): at the opening of the left atrium into the ventricle


Semilunar (SL) valves

-pulmonary semilunar: at the beginning of the pulmonary artery
-aortic semilunar: at the beginning of the aorta


Valve disorders

-incompetent valves "leak", allowing some blood to flow backward into the chamber from which it came
-stenosed valves are narrower than normal, reducing blood flow
-mitral valve prolapse (MVP): incompetence of mitral valve caused by its edges extending back into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts


❤️ sounds

-first sound (lub) is caused by the vibration and CLOSURE of AV valves during contraction of the ventricles
-second sound (dub) is caused by the CLOSURE of the semilunar valves during relaxing of the ventricles
-❤️ murmurs: abnormal ❤️sounds often caused by abnormal valves


True or false: the ❤️ acts as two separate pumps- the right atrium and ventricle performing different functions from left atrium and left ventricle



Blood flow through the heart

-venous blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior venae cavae-> passes from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle
-from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary artery to the lungs-> blood from the lungs to the left atrium, passing through the bicuspid (mitral) valve to the left ventricle
-blood in the left ventricle is pumped through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta and is distributed to the body as a whole


Myocardial infarction

-blood, which supplies oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium of the ❤️, flows through the right and left coronary arteries
-blockage of blood flow through the coronary can cause myocardial infarction (heart attack)


Pulmonary circulation

-involves movement of blood from right ventricle to the lungs


Systemic circulation

-involves movement of blood from the left ventricle throughout the body as a whole


Blood pressure

The pressure or "push" of blood as it flows through the cardiovascular system


Where does blood pressure exit?

-it exits in all blood vessels
-highest in the arteries and lowest in the veins


Blood pressure gradient

-it is the different between two blood pressures
-vitally involved in keeping the blood flowing
-when a blood pressure gradient is present, blood circulates
-when a blood pressure gradient is not present blood does not circulate


Why is high blood pressure (hypertension) bad?

-ex 140/90 mmHg
-if bp becomes to high, it may rupture one or more blood vessels (in the brain as a stroke)
-increases the load on the heart
-causes abnormal thickening of the myocardium
-could eventually lead to heart failure


Why is low blood pressure dangerous?

-if arterial pressure falls low enough, circulation and thus life cease
-massive hemorrhage which dramatically reduces blood pressure, kills in this way


Factors that affect blood pressure

-blood volume
-strength of heart contractions
-heart rate
-blood viscosity


Blood volume

-direct cause of blood pressure is the VOLUME of blood in the vessels
-⬆️ blood volume = ⬆️ blood pressure
-⬇️ blood volume = ⬇️ blood pressure
-diuertics often used to treat hypertension (as water is lost from the body, blood volume decreases, and thus blood pressure decreases to a lower level


Strength of heart contractions

-⬆️ in strength of contraction = ⬆️in blood it pumps into the aorta and arteries
- ⬇️ in strength of contraction = ⬇️ in blood pumped


Heart rate

-when the ❤️ beats faster, each contraction of the left ventricle takes place so rapidly that it has little time to fill with blood and therefore squeezes out much less blood than usual into the aorta
-⬆️ in the rate of heartbeat = ⬆️ blood pressure
-⬇️in rate of heartbeat = ⬇️ blood pressure


Blood viscosity

- ⬆️ in thickness of blood =⬆️in resistance to blood flow = ⬆️ blood pressure
-if blood becomes less viscous than normal, blood pressure decreases
-polycythemia: the number of RBC's increase beyond normal and thus increases blood viscosity and blood pressure


Peripheral resistance

-any force that acts against the flow of blood in a blood vessel


What is a normal arterial blood pressure

-the 120 is the systolic pressure
-the 80 is the diastolic pressure


Central venous pressure

-venous pressure within the right atrium
- pressure level is important because it influences the pressure that exists in the large peripheral veins
-if the ❤️ beats strongly, the CVP is low as blood enters and leaves the ❤️ chambers efficiently
-opposite for if it beats slowly, causes a back up in the venous network


5 mechanisms that help keep venous blood moving back through the cardiovascular system and into the atrium

-continued beating of the ❤️, which pumps blood through the entire cardiovascular system
-adequate blood pressure in the arteries, to push blood through the veins
-semilunar valves in the veins that ensure continued blood flow in one direction (toward the ❤️)
-contraction of skeletal muscles, which squeeze veins producing a kind of pumping action
-changing pressures in the chest cavity during breathing that produce a kind of pumping action in the veins in the thorax



-what you feel when you take a pulse is an ARTERY expanding and then recoiling alternately
-9 major pulse points: 3 located on each side of the head and neck, 3 in the upper limb, 3 in the lower limb
-the radial artery of the wrist (radial pulse) is the most frequently monitored and easily accessible pulse in the body


True or false: there is a direct relationship between age and hypertension

-as age advances, the blood vessels become less compliant and there is a higher incidence of atherosclerotic plaque build up


The ____ of the heart lies on the diaphragm



The most anterior surface of the heart is formed mainly by the ______ ventricle

Right ventricle!


The diaphragmatic surface of the heart is formed mainly by the _____ ventricle

Right ventricle


The heart is located in the mediastinum. It is covered by its own double layered serous membrane known as the ____. The parietal layer of the pericardium is a loose fitting sac, while the visceral layer is in direct contact with the surface of the heart and as such it is sometimes called the ____. Between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium, is a narrow space that contains ____

Pericardium, epicardium, pericardial fluid


Explain the function of pericardial fluid

It prevents friction as the heart beats


The middle muscular wall of the heart is known as the ____, while the smooth innermost layer of tissue that lines the cavities of the heart is called the ____

Myocardium, endocardium


Number off the tissue layers of the heart and pericardium in order, from the most superficial to the deepest
-parietal pericardium
-pericardial cavity
-visceral pericardium or epicardium

1) parietal pericardium
2) pericardial cavity
3) visceral pericardium or epicardium
4) myocardium
5) endocardium


Internally, the heart is divided into right and left halves by the _____ and the _____

Interatrial septum and interventricular septum



-outpuchings that expand the volume of the atria


Left ventricle

-most muscular of the four heart chambers because it is primarily responsible for pumping blood to the far reaches of the body ex systemic circulation


The heart muscles receives its oxygen supply through the ____ arteries



Coronary circulation originates with the _____ coronary arteries which branch off the aorta near the aortic valve

Right and left coronary arteries


Left coronary artery branches off into the ____ artery and the ____ artery

Circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery


True or false: after blood has been circulated through the myocardium it is collected by a series of cardiac veins that dump into the coronary sinus, and finally into the right atrium of the heart



Chordae tendinae

- "heart strings" control the movements of atrioventricular valve leaflets


Describe the path an erythrocyte would take through the heart, from the time it enters the IVC to the time it leaves the aorta

-IVC into the right atrium, through the tricuspid valve into right ventricle, through pulmonary valve to pulmonary artery to lung, returning from lungs via pulmonary veins into left atrium, through mitral valve into left ventricle, out aortic valve into ascending aorta


Which heart valves takes the most wear and tear

Mitral valve


Why is high blood pressure referred to as the "silent killer"

-because hypertension manifests minimal or no overt signs