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Flashcards in What To Focus On Deck (26):


Transient ischemic attack
-like a stroke but you recover


Brain aneurysm (3)

1. Berry: bulge on one side
2. Fusiform: bulge on both sides (entire circumference)
3. Dissecting: bulge and goes into vessel walls (bleeding) between the tunica intima and media


Mitral valve issues

1. Stenosis: little valves can't open or close properly (blood backs up into LA because it can't get to LV, back up chain to lungs etc
-pulmonary hypertension: too much blood in lungs
-pulmonary edema: plasma spills into interstitial fluid in lungs
2. Prolapse: lack of tension in LV systole causes blood to back flow to LA (weak/flappy valves: can't seal properly)



-restrict/slow down blood flow
-happens when bed ridden after surgery, not moving a lot
- happens:
-blood pools in superficial veins of lower extremities
-incompetent valves (don't open or close properly)



-to tie off
-stops blood from pooling in veins by tying them off


Blood clot

-usually happens in femoral veins (deep vessels of legs)
-thrombus: clot inside lumen of vessel
-embolus: clot moving through blood stream, (blood clot, plaque, air, fat, amniotic fluid)
-pulmonary embolism: when clot moves through the body and causes blockage in the heart


Rheumatic fever

-not common because of antibiotics
-an infection in body that moves to the flaps/valves of the heart if not treated asap (mitral and aortic valves)


Stenosed and occluded

Stenosed: narrow
Occluded: blocked



Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging out the sides of the vessel)
-causes: atherosclerosis, infection, trauma, if more than 10cm there is trouble


What happens at or in coronary arteries if they are stenosed?

-heart attack
-angina (chest pain)


A calcified artery can lead to



Heart failure

-heart can't pump fast enough or at enough volume to efficiently move enough blood to oxygenate tissues
-two types: right and left sided heart failure


Left sided heart failure

-most common
-no venous return: can't pump blood out to the body
-causes: coronary artery disease, increase blood pressure, valance disease
-mitral valve doesn't close, blood flows back into LA


Right sided heart failure

-more rare
-usually happens secondary to L sided HF
-acts like traffic congestion
-venous return compromised (blood pools in lower extremities: edema
-causes: pulmonary vale stenosis, emphysema, pulmonary emboli
-blood gets caught in the aorta, then lungs then RV... backs up whole body


Most common disease in humans

Hardening of the arteries



-coronary artery disease (build up of stuff in the heart)
-can be stenosed or occluded
-ischemia (decreased o2 supply)



Hardening of the arteries
-(lose elasticity, calcification of walls)
-build up of stuff in the lumen (plaque, WBC, platelets, thrombus (blood clot)
-stenosis if not treated
-can cause ischemia, occlusion, hypertension


Blood pressure of heart pre birth and after birth

Pre: LEFT side has highest blood pressure
After: RIGHT side has highest blood pressure


4 congenital pathologies of CVS (heart)

1. Patent foremen ovale
2. Patent ductus arteriosis
3. Coarctation of the aorta
4. Tetrology of fallot


Arteriosclerosis vs atherosclerosis

-Arteriosclerosis: general term describing a thickening and loss of elasticity in the walls of arteries
-atherosclerosis: more specific term, the build up of fibrofatty (plaque) deposits
-most common arteries affected: abdominal aorta, common iliacs, femoral, cerebral, coronary arteries


Myocardial infarction

-death of some portion of heart muscle (heart attack)
-causes: acute thrombus in coronary arteries
-symptoms more severe in men( shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, severe pain)



-deep vein thrombosis
-blood clot formed in lower extremity vein


Patent Foramen ovale

-heals over in 1 year or less (then called fossa ovalis)
-atrial septal defect (oval hole) between R+L atria
-O2 blood flows from high pressure LA to low pressure RA
-mixed O2+CO2 blood flow into RV
-heart has to work harder (pumps some blood 2 times)
-increase of blood flow into lungs (increase congestion of lungs- more white on radiograph)
-most common: atrial septal defect, congenital defect


Patent ductus arteriosis

-vascular shunt between pulmonary artery and aorta remain patent (open)
-during systole (contraction) blood from high pressure aorta goes into low pressure pulmonary artery instead of to the body
-o2 and co2 blood mix back to lungs a second time
-normally fossilized in 30 min post birth and turns into ligamentum arteriosum


Coarctation of the aorta

-liagmentum arteriosum (fossilized ductus arteriosis) is too tight
-aorta is stenosed at the site of attachment
-aorta has pre stenotic bulge and post stenotic bulge
-body develops/ creates collateral vessels to direct blood past stenosis
-collateral vessels rub on ribs as heart beats: causes notches


Tetrology of fallot

4 defects
1. Ventricular septal defect (superior of ventricles)
2. Stenosis of pulmonary artery
3. Over riding aorta
4. Ventricular hypertrophy
-over Riding aorta: aorta entrance spans R+L ventricles (o2 and co2 blood is sent out to body: ventricular hypertrophy)
-most common cause of cyanosis (blue) in neonate (newborn)
-small chance of survival (surgery is palliative) can't be healed