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Flashcards in Outcome 4 Endocrine System Deck (103):

Endocrine glands secrete _____ into the _____.

Endocrine glands secrete CHEMICALS (HORMONES) into the BLOOD


What do hormones do?

Perform general functions of communication and control but a SLOWER, LONGER-LASTING type of control than that provided by nerve impulses


Cells acted on by hormones are called ____ found within ____

Cells acted on by hormones are called TARGET CELLS found within TARGET ORGANS


Hormone secretion is controlled by _____

Homeostatic feedback


Negative feedback

Mechanisms or loops that reverse the direction of a change in a physiological system back towards a normal value. Allows the brain and body to have control over the secretion rates of hormones.

Ex: an increase in blood glucose triggers secretion of insulin. Because insulin promotes glucose uptake by the cells, the blood glucose level is restored it's lower, normal level


Positive feedback

(Uncommon) mechanisms that amplify the physiological changes


Major hormones in the anterior pituitary

TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
GH- growth hormone
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone (stimulates the adrenal glands)


Major hormone of the posterior pituitary

ADH-antidiuretic hormone (stops you from producing urine so you pee less. It causes the kidney to conserve water)



RELATIVE CONSTANCY OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. The temp, salt content, acid level (PH), fluid volume and pressure, oxygen concentration, and over vital conditions must remain within acceptable limits


Endocrine glands

DUCTLESS GLANDS made up of cells that produce and release chemicals known as hormones into the INTERCELLULAR SPACES of surrounding tissues. The hormones are quickly picked up by the blood stream and distributed to target organs and cells


Exocrine glands

Collections of glandular tissue within an organ that produce and release NON-HORMONAL substances INTO DUCTS that empty onto a surface or into a cavity. EX sweat glands, salivary glands


Target cell

Each hormone molecule may bind to a cell that has specific receptors for that hormone, triggering a reaction in the cell



Substances such as salts that dissolve or break apart in water solution to form electrically charged atoms (or groups of atoms) called ions


Electrolyte balance

Homeostasis or relative constancy of normal electrolyte levels in the body fluids


The ability to maintain the balance of body functions is related to ____

AGE! During childhood, homeostatic functions gradually become more and more efficient and effective. They operate with max efficiency and effectiveness during young adulthood. During late adulthood and old age they gradually become less and less efficient and effective


Pineal gland

-attached to the roof of the 3rd ventricle in the center of the brain (part of the diencephalon)
-contains calcium salts (brain sand) that can be seen on radiographic images especially CT
-pine cone shaped
-secretes the hormone melatonin -> helps set the body's biological clock, by regulating sleep/wake patterns
-uses info regarding changing light levels to adjust its levels of melatonin
-melatonin levels INCREASE at night and DECREASE during the day
-easily located in a child but becomes fibrous and encrusted with calcium deposits as a person ages
-SAD -> seasonal affective disorder


Pituitary gland

-attached inferiorly to the hypothalamus by a stem-like structure
-located in the sella tursica
-encased in dura mater, and surrounded by the circle of Willis
-size and shape of a pea
-made up of an anterior and posterior portion


Posterior pituitary

-cellular structure similar to nervous tissue
-does not manufacture any hormones
-it STORES two hormones made by the Hypothalamus
-only one is pertinent in radiography ADH-> anti diuretic hormone


ADH- antidiuretic hormone

-Stops you from producing urine so you "pee" less. It causes the kidneys to conserve water
-stored in the posterior pituitary
-made by hypothalamus



-located in mediastinum
-composed largely of lymphocytes
-plays a critical part in the body's defences against infections -> vital immunity mechanism


Anterior pituitary

-cellular structure of a true endocrine gland
-manufactures 6 hormones only 3 are pertinent to radiography
-TSH -> thyroid stimulating hormone
-GH -> growth hormone
-ACTH -> adrenocorticotropic hormone (stimulates the adrenal glands)



-can cause over production of hormones
-BEFORE the fusion of growth plates will cause GIANTISM
-AFTER the fusion of growth plates will cause ACROMEGALY


Hypo-pituitarism is usually due to a _____ or _____

-Pituitary tumour or pituitary ischemia
-diagnosed with CT, MRI or Angio
-treated with hormone replacement


Hypopituitarism can cause ____



Achondroplasia if a congenital disease

-sign of this if you are a dwarf (normal trunk but short limbs, 4ft tall, protruding buttock)
-a common cause of dwarfism
-genetic condition that prevents cartilage in the epiphyses from converting to bone
-widening at the distal end of the long bone shafts (trumpeting)


Achondroplasia if had a tumour on the pituitary

-wouldn't look like the classic "dwarf" they would have normal body proportions but are just short
-could take growth hormones sub dermally to treat this



-usually 4 of them
-tiny yellow/brown glands located on posterior surface of thyroid
-secrete Parathyroid hormone (PTH) -> increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts (bone absorbing cells) to breakdown bony matrix, thereby freeing calcium and phosphorus
-maintaining blood calcium at homeostatic levels is a matter of life and death


Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

-increases the concentration of calcium in the blood
-stimulates bone resorbing cells or osteoclasts to increase their breakdown of bones hard matrix, a process that frees the calcium stored in the matrix
-released calcium then moves out of the bone into the blood -> increasing bloods calcium concentration


Too much calcium in the blood

-Brain and heart cells soon do not function normally
-person becomes mentally disturbed
-heart stops altogether


Too little blood calcium

-nerve cells become overactive
-sometimes bombard muscles with so many impulses that the muscles go into spasms


Thyroid gland

-butterfly shaped
-located on anterior side of neck, sits anterior to trachea, inferior to larynx
-not located in a body cavity
-isthmus connects two lateral lobes
-stores and secretes thyroid hormone (TH) and calcitonin


Thyroid hormone (TH)

-production and release controlled through the negative feedback loop
-iodine is a key ingredient -> limited iodine in diet means thyroid gland cannot produce functional TH which causes feedback loop to fail: target cells do not receive functioning TH so they cannot, in turn, produce chemical inhibitors that stop the hypothalamus and pituitary glands from releasing more TSH
-speeds up cellular metabolism -> increased level of energy
-used to increase body temp, maintain BP, regulate tissue growth and development



Hormone that decreases blood calcium levels



-Graves disease is most common cause ->hereditary autoimmune disease where the body produces antibodies that mimic TSH so TH is continuously released into the bloodstream
-protruding eyeballs (exophthalmos), edema in soft tissue posterior to the eyes
-can be triggered by smoking, stress, radiation to the neck, medications and viruses, thyroid neoplasms


(Hashimotos disease)

-under secretion of thyroid hormones
-diet missing iodine
-sleepy, skin gets thick and flaky
-can cause a goiter or a condition called myxedema (mucous swelling), edema around the eyes and facial swelling
-the gland enlarges in an attempt to compensate for the lack of iodine in the diet necessary for the synthesis of TH



-lack of iodine to the fetus
-congenital hypothyroidism caused by low thyroid during fetal development
-short in stature; course features with protruding tongue, board flattened nose, widely set eyes
-on x-rays there is an absence of epiphyseal plate on femur and tibia
-increased thickness of skull
-must be treated within 3 months of age to avoid long term effects


Adrenal glands

-pyramid shaped glands perched on superior end of kidneys (visible on CT)
-often called "supra renal glands"
-like "two glands in one" because the cortex secretes different hormones than the medulla
-all adrenal hormones help us deal with stress!!
-epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol (glucocorticoid)


Epinephrine and norepinephrine

-direct nervous stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system causes the ADRENAL MEDULLA to immediately "dump" epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream
-initiates powerful "fight or flight" mechanism
-RAPID INCREASE in BP, heart rate, blood sugar level and immediate diversion of blood to skeletal muscles
-allows us to effectively deal with a short term threat ex swarm of killer bees



-when stimulated by the ACTH from the anterior pituitary glad the adrenal cortex produces the glucocorticoid cortisol
-has 3 effects on the body
1) INCREASES blood sugar levels by increasing normal metabolic processes associated with glucogenesis. Helps the body deal with daily metabolic stressors related to changing routines or lifestyle choices. Ex cortisol will maintain blood sugar levels in the event you skip breakfast
2) suppresses the immune system
3)has an anti-inflammatory/ anti-allergic effect
-under severe stress cortisol output increases


Cushing's syndrome

-most often caused iatrogenically (no know cause) by steroidal drug therapies (ex prednisone) but may also be caused by pituitary and adrenal pathologies
-classic symptoms "moon face" and "Buffalo hump"
-H20 and salt retention, loss of bone and muscle mass-> eventually end up bed ridden
-chronic hyperglycemia
-intense anti-inflammatory effects can cause severe infections to go unnoticed


Pancreatic islets

-(islets of Lagerhans) clusters of 2 different types of hormone producing cells that work against each other to maintain blood sugar levels
1) alpha cells ->glucagon (hyperglycemic hormone)
2) beta cells -> insulin (hypogylcemic hormone)



-stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood to raise blood sugar levels



The only hormone that can decrease blood sugar levels!!


Diabetes mellitus

-chronically high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) due to insufficient insulin production or uptake
-type 1 -> congenital or juvenile diabetes, requires regular insulin injections
-type 2 -> adult onset, or insulin resistant diabetes is less severe and can usually be managed by diet


Type 1 diabetes

-juvenile diabetes
-genetic defect in insulin production


Type 2 diabetes

-adult onset
-insulin resistant diabetes
-may be genetically predisposed but obesity and inactivity increases chances
-increased risk of CAD, stroke, and DVT


Which endocrine gland can be visualized on a CT of the head?



Which gland secretes growth hormone?

Anterior pituitary


Which glands are typically shielded from ionizing radiation?



Which gland decreases in size after puberty?



Which gland might get mixed up when we work night shifts, and what hormone does it secrete?

-pineal gland
-secretes melatonin


Why can the pancreas be severely damaged by overconsumption of alcohol?

Because pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin to control blood sugar, and alcohol raises blood sugar levels


The only hormone that reduces blood sugar is ______



Which glands secrete hormones that help you run from immediate danger?

-the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine which controls the fight or flight response


Which glands secrete hormones to help you deal with the longer term stress of x-Ray school?

-the adrenal cortex secrets cortisone to help the body deal with everyday scheduling stresses


List the glands/hormones that are responsible for maintaining blood calcium levels

-thyroid -> produces calcitonin (decreases blood calcium levels)
-parathyroids -> parathyroid hormone (increases blood calcium levels)


Will hyperparathyroidism decrease your bone density or increase it?

Decrease it!


Will hyperthyroidism raise your blood sugar level or lower it?

Raise it


What does ADH stand for and which gland secretes it

-antidiuretic hormone
-posterior pituitary gland secretes it


Diabetes insipidus

-ADH insufficiency potentially caused by trauma to the head
-causes polyuria and excessive thirst
-treated with hormone replacement
-increases urine production



-acute inflammatory disease caused by insufficient production of cortisone
-most common in women 30-60
-hypogylcemia, weight loss, fatigue
-hormone replacement therapy is required
-enlargement of the adrenal glands can be visualized with MRI and CT


Insulin shock

- (hypogylcemic shock) can occur in diabetics if they have taken too much insulin, have not had enough food, or have exercised too much
-juice or candy should be given immediately


Explain the function of the lymphatic system

It collects and filters interstitial fluid that leaked into the tissues and returns it to the bloodstream to maintain blood volume


An infection can spread to other locations in the body through the lymphatic system



Blockages in the lymphatic system can lead to a build-up of fluid in the interstitial spaces known as _____



What are the main functions of lymph nodes?

-to store developing lymphocytes
-to filter bacteria, cancerous cells, and cellular debris from the body's lymph before returning it to the bloodstream


The largest lymphoid organ in the body is the ____



True or false: the spleen filters lymph before returning it to the bloodstream



List the functions of the spleen

-cleans BLOOD through filtration and phagocytosis
-stores monocytes and blood
-recycles iron and hemoglobin from worn out erythrocytes


The immune system has two basic types of defences; innate or "non-specific" defences, and adaptive, or "specific defences". Which of these provides the very first line of defence against invading pathogens?

Non-specific (innate)


List 3 physical barriers to disease, and give an example of where they are found in the body

- ear wax and cilia (ear)
- mucous membranes in the esophagus
-acidic mucous membranes in the stomach


True or false: phagocytes may remove a microorganism from the body before specific defenses are initiated



Why does redness occur (one of the four classic inflammatory responses)

-because blood vessels at the site of injury vasodilate to let more blood flow into the area


Why does swelling occur (one of the four signs of inflammation)

-the site of inflammation swells as capillaries in the area become more permeable so that nutrient rich blood plasma can leak into the interstitial spaces


Why does heat occur (one of the four signs of inflammation)

-increased blood flow at the body core temp to the inflamed site


Why does pain occur (one of the signs of inflammation)

-extra fluids leaking into the interstitial spaces press on nerve endings and cause pain


It is common to take an anti-histamine such as Benadryl or Claritin for allergies. What aspect of the inflammatory response do these drugs control

-histamine is one of the various mediators that are released into the tissues during an inflammatory response, it is a powerful vasodilator that causes an increased amount of blood to reach damaged tissues
-an anti-histamine is a drug that limits the naturally occurring vasodilation response


_____ is a collection of white blood cells, dead tissue, bacteria and cell debris



A _____ occurs when inflammatory mediators send a message to the brain to increase baseline body temp. What are the positive metabolic effects of this?

-pathogens are inhibited or killed
-immune system processes are enhanced


Describe three significant aspects that distinguish the specific defense system from the non-specific one

- it is specific- it recognizes and targets specific antigens
-it is systemic- it applies to the entire body rather than just to one particular location
-it has memory-after initial expose then immune


True or false: lymphocytes are produced in the red bone marrow



B and T lymphocytes are stored in the ____ until they are activated by contact with an antigen

Lymph nodes


_________ (humoral immunity) is one component of the specific defense system that involves a series of biochemical reactions that cause ______ to divide into ____ and ________

-antibody mediated immunity, b lymphocytes, memory cells and plasma cells


Plasma cells produce _____ that attach to the surface of specific invading antigens, thereby disabling them so that macrophages can ultimately destroy and eliminate them from the body



_____ remain in the blood, so that the immune systems response to a future invasion can be triggered much more quickly and effectively, before the infection gets out of control

Memory B cells


Cell mediated immunity

-the second component of the specific defense system which uses T-lymphocytes to launch a direct chemical attack on tissue cells that have been infected with parasites, viruses, cancer, or have been transplanted into the body from another organism (ex donor kidney)


A young female who has had her wisdom teeth removed
-list some of the body's defense mechanisms that would be activated to provide protection, or prevent the spread of disease

-inflammatory response
-mucous membranes


A hiker whose bear spray went off in the car
-list some of the body's defense mechanisms that would be activated to provide protection, or prevent the spread of disease

-mucus membranes
-inflammatory response


A student who has received a hepatitis vaccination
-list some of the body's defense mechanisms that would be activated to provide protection, or prevent the spread of disease

-T and B lymphocytes
-cell mediated and antibody mediated defenses


A cook who cut his finger while chopping up raw chicken
-list some of the body's defense mechanisms that would be activated to provide protection, or prevent the spread of disease

-inflammatory response


explain the physiology behind autoimmune disorders

A patients lymphocytes lose the ability to recognize the difference between the cells that are "self" and those that are foreign, so they begin to attack the tissues they are supposed to be protecting


true or false: the hepatitis vaccine that you require to work in the hospital will give you "actively acquired artificial humoral immunity" to hepatitis



True or false: a child who has accidentally swallowed a caustic chemical is in danger of comprising the mucous membranes on her throat and is at more risk for infection



True or false: anti-histamine works against the natural inflammatory processes of the body



Gloves provide a technologists non-specific immune system with a little extra help



True or false: hand washing is an important line of defense because it helps prevent pathogens from coming in contact with mucous membranes



True or false: vaccinations are the only way to develop humoral immunity in the body



Uncontrolled inflammation in body tissues can lead to scarring (fibrosis)



Acromegaly originates with the

Pituitary gland


True or false: Achondroplasia can be treated by the administration of growth hormone

False- it is a congenital condition


Cushings syndrome can be caused by the administration of prednisone



Diseases associated with hyperthyroidism are



A diabetic patient with a broken arm, has been sitting in the waiting room of a busy hospital for over 3 hours when they begin to feel light headed and shaky. What do you think they need?

Need to be given something sweet