From the Greek word, “anatome,” which means “dissection” or “to cut apart.”
Towards the front
Towards the back
Towards the head
Away from the head
Toward the midline of the body
Away from the midline of the body
Toward the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure, or midline of the body
Away from the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure, or midline of the body
External; located close to or on the body surface
Internal; located further beneath the body surface than the superficial structure
Regional term referring to the neck
Regional term referring to the portion of the body between the neck and the abdomen; also known as the chest (thorax)
Regional term referring to the portion of the back between the abdomen and the pelvis
The sole or bottom of the feet
The top surface of the feet or hands
The anterior or ventral surface of the hands
A longitudinal (imaginary) line that dives the body or any of its parts into right and left sections
A longitudinal (imaginary) section that divies the body into anterior and posterior parts; lies at a right angle to the sagittal plane
Also known as the horizontal plane; an imaginary line that divides the body or any of its parts into superior and inferior sections
Definition: Inflammation in a joint
Definition: Two-headed muscle
Definition: Muscle of the arm
Definition: The study of the heart
Definition: Pertaining to the head
Definition: Excision of a cartilage
Definition: Pertaining to a rib and its cartilage
Definition: Inflammation of the skin
Root: Hemo, Hemat
Definition: Internal or external bleeding
Definition: The wide, upper part of the pelvic bone
Definition: Inflammation of a muscle
Root: Os, Osteo
Definition: Softening of the bone
Term: Pulmonary artery
Definition: Vessel that brings blood to the lungs
Definition: Three-headed muscle
Refers to a person standing erect with the head, eyes, and palms facing forward.
Four Structural Levels in the Body
The most basic structure. They make up tissues.
An organ is formed by two or more tissues combining to serve as a specialized physiological center for the body.
The highest structural level. Organs that function cooperatively and have a common purpose.
A closed-circuit system composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues while also removing waste, such as carbon dioxide and metabolic by-products.
Carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart
Provide sites for gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the blood and tissues
Return oxygen poor blood back to the heart
The liquid part of blood
- Arteries and Arterioles
- Veins and Venules
The hardening of the arteries and narrowing of the arteries due to plaque accumulation. Gives way to increased blood pressure.
A muscular wall that separates the right and left side of the heart, which prevents the mixing of blood from the two sides of the heart
(Right and Left) Connect the atria with the right and left atria respectively
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Prevents back flow from the arteries into the ventricles (Right side)
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Prevents back flow from the arteries into the ventricles (Left side)
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Prevents back flow from the arteries into the ventricles (Right ventricle)
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Prevents back flow from the arteries into the ventricles (Left ventricle)
Make it possible for the body to exchange gases between the external environment and the tissues - provides a means to replace oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. It makes vocalization possible and plays an important role in the regulation of the acid-base balance during exercise. Made up of: - Nose - Nasal cavity - Pharynx - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchi - Lungs
The area of the “Adam’s Apple”
Windpipe - extends to the fifth or sixth thoracic vertebrae, where it divides into two smaller branches: the right and left primary bronchi.
Regular Endurance Exercise
Increases the oxidative capacity of respiratory muscles, which improves respiratory endurance.
Carries food molecules through the hepatic portal vein to the liver before distributing them throughout the body.
Digestive Systems Six Basic Processes
- Ingestion of food into the mouth
- Movement of food along the digestive tract
- Mechanical preparation of food for digestion
- Chemical digestion of food
- Absorption of digested food into the circulatory and lymphatic systems
- Elimination of indigestible substances and waste products from the body by defecation
Regions of GI Tract
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
Measures approx. 21 feet
Large Intestine (Colon)
Measures approx. 5 feet (diameter is larger than small intestine)
Composed of an extensive network of capillaries, collecting vessels. lymph nodes, and lymphoid organs, and serves to return excess fluid from between the cells (interstitial fluid) back to the bloodstream, thereby preventing swelling of the intercellular spaces (edema).
Lymph fluid is very similar to blood, except that it contains no red blood cells or platelets, as these components cannot escape through the blood-vessel walls. Once lymph enters the blood through specialized vessels called lymphatic capillaries, it circulates though the arteries, blood capillaries, and veins.
Four important functions:
1. Destruction of bacteria and other foreign substances that are present in lymph nodes
2. Specific immune responses that aid in manufacturing antibodies to destroy bacteria and foreign substances
3. The return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream
4. Prevention of excessive accumulation of tissue fluid and filtered proteins by drainage into highly permeable lymphatic capillaries in the connective tissues
- Formation of blood cells
Number of bones in adult human
Longer than they are wide.
Same length and width.
Thin and typically curved.
- Some bones of skull
Do not fit in any other category.
- Hip bones
- Certain skull bones
The hollow space inside the diaphysis. Used as storage site for fat (sometimes called the yellow bone marrow cavity).
74 bones. Provides main axial support for the body and protect the central nervous system and the organs of the thorax. - Skull Cranium (8) Face (14) - Hyoid (1) - Vertebrae Column (26) - Thorax Sternum (1) Ribs (24)
33 vertebrae. Categorized by regions:
- Upper region (neck area): 7 small, delicate.
- Mid-region (below cervical vertebrae): 12 Thoracic (each attached to a rib)
- Lower region: 5 Lumbar (heaviest), Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), Coccyx (4 fused vertebrae)
126 bones. Bones of upper and lower limbs and the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic (hip) girdles. - Lower Extremity Phalanges (28) Metatarsals (10) Tarsals (14) Patella (2) Tibia (2) Fibula (2) Femur (2) - Pelvic Girdle Hip or Pelvis (2) - Shoulder Girdle Clavicle (2) Scapula (2) - Upper Extremity Phalanges (28) Metacarpals (10) Carpals (16) Radius (2) Ulna (2) Humerus (2)
6 bones (3 per ear)
Three Main Types of Joints
Held tightly together by a fibrous connective tissue and allow little or no movement. Classified as synarthroidal (syn = together. arthro = joint) considered immovable joints (include sutures of the skull and the joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula).
Bones are connected by cartilage and little or no movement is allowed.
Most common. Freely moveable. (Diathroses “through joint”)
Major artery delivery blood from the heart to the body
Superior/Inferior Vena Cava
Major veins returning blood to the heart from the body
Carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen in the lungs
Heart pumps oxygenated blood to tissues throughout the body
Fluid created in the synovial membrane by capillaries to nourish the articular cartilages and lubricate the joint surfaces.
Fibrocartilage (menisci in the knee)
Medial and Lateral Meniscis
Help absorb shock in the knee, increase joint stability, direct synovial fluid to aid in nourishment of the knee, and increase joint contact surface area, thereby decreasing overall pressure on the joint.
Axis of Rotation
An imaginary line that forms a right angle to the plane of movement about which a joint rotates.
Uniplanar or Uniaxial Joints
(Hinge Joints) Joints that move in one plane only and have one axis of rotation. (Ankles, elbow)
Biplanar or Biaxial Joints
Joints that allow movement in two planes that are perpendicular to each other. (Foot, knee, hand, wrist).
Multiplanar or Triaxial Joints
Joints that allow movement in three axes of rotation. (Hip, thumb, shoulder).
Four General Groups of Movement
The surfaces of two adjoining bones move back and forth upon each other.
Four General Groups of Movement
An increase or decrease in the angle between two adjoining bones.
There are four angular movements defined for synovial joints:
Bones comprising a joint move toward each other in the sagittal plans, decreasing the joint angle between them.
The opposite of flexion. Causes the angle between two adjoining bones to increase in the sagittal plane.
When part of the body is moved away from the midline of the body, such as lifting an arm or leg away from the side of the body.
The opposite of abduction. Refers to movement of a body part toward the midline of the body.
The incorporation of all four angular movements to create one motion (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction).
Motion of a bone around a central (longitudinal) axis.
Pronation or Supination
Occurs at the radioulnar joint.
Supination (rotation so palm faces anteriorly).
Pronation (rotation so palm faces posteriorly).